The meeting comes as Biden has taken charge of the White House gun crime task force, developing proposals to tamp down on the nation's epidemic of firearm violence.
Biden has held a series of discussions with gun-safety groups and gun-rights advocates and will present recommendations by the end of January.
The White House is likely to push for tougher restrictions on gun rights and Biden has sought to mobilize support before unveiling the group's recommendations.
Biden is likely to find support among many of the nation's big city mayors, including New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg (I), who has been a vocal proponent of firearms restrictions.
Other notable speakers at the mayors' conference will include Housing and Urban Development Secretary Shaun Donovan, Education Secretary Arne Duncan, Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius, Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood, Labor Secretary Hilda Solis, and Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa.
Rapper MC Hammer, singer John Legend, and musical act The Roots will also be on hand.