Most notably, the U.S. and Russia has agreed to continue fighting the spread of nuclear weapons, a significant tenet of President Obama's foreign policy and anti-terrorism agenda.
In a statement from Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, the leaders said they "confirm[ed] their commitment to strengthening their cooperation to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and stop acts of nuclear terrorism."
The "Joint Understanding" that Obama and Medvedev signed on Monday commits the two countries to reduce strategic warheads to between 1,500 to 1,675. The two nations will also reduce strategic delivery vehicles to between 500 and 1,100.
The countries also signed an "Joint Understanding" to work to replace the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which will expire on Dec. 5 of this year, according to the White House.
Obama and Medvedev also reached an agreement that will allow the U.S. to transport military personnel and equipment across Russia to support American and Coalition forces in Afghanistan, and the two leaders issued a joint statement concerning the war in Afghanistan. The agreement will allow the U.S. to fly through Russia airspace to deliver supplies to Afghanistan 4,500 times per year at no charge, saving the U.S. $133 million in transportation costs, according to the White House.
That agreement comes as U.S. and Russia military officials have signed a new strategic framework for military-to-military engagement between the two countries. The agreement resumes bilateral activities that have been suspended since August of 2008, when Russia invaded Georgia.