The war in Afghanistan and the drone strikes in Pakistan and Yemen have failed to destroy Al Qaeda. Nor has bin Laden’s elimination led to Al Qaeda’s demise.
When Al Qaeda was driven out of Afghanistan, it successfully reconstituted itself, creating small cells with bases of operation in South Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Spread over such a large area, Al Qaeda’s destruction by military means is virtually impossible and a change in policy is necessary.
Washington’s support for the ruling elites in most Islamic countries, regardless of how they treat their people, fuels Islamist terrorism and is partly the cause of it.
In the context of America’s deadly confrontation with the Soviet Union, that policy was understandable. It was also feasible as the international community lived in a vastly different world. After World War II and the onset of the Cold War, most of the Islamic nations had just emerged from colonial rule. The mostly illiterate and poor people knew only the harsh treatment of colonial authorities. They had neither experienced nor had access to the ideas of democracy and the rule of law. When the colonial era came to an end, the colonial authorities’ local cronies inherited state powers and continued that same oppressive systems.
All that changed with the advent of mass migration, satellite television, and the Internet. Those transformations together with economic globalization altered human society in ways unimaginable a mere generation before.
The cultural borders that had remained fairly intact began to crumble. Satellite television brought living conditions of advanced societies into the living rooms of the poverty-stricken masses in developing countries. The Internet spread information to the farthest corners of the globe. Migration from the less fortunate parts of the world to the well-to-do nations of the West took on unprecedented volumes. For the first time, large numbers of Moslems settled in Christian Western Europe and North America. Suddenly, planet earth appeared much smaller and a global community of people took on its very initial and as yet imperfect form.
Due to these extraordinary changes, average Moslems understood for the first time the extent of their backwardness and dependence on advanced nations. The psychological impact was dramatic and devastating.
Convinced that they were God’s chosen people, most Moslems lived with a notion that the rest of humanity was inferior to them. When they realized the misery their corrupt governments had brought upon them, anger overcame them and they determined to free themselves from their hated rulers. They gradually included the U.S. in their hatred as they perceived America in league with their reviled leaders.
If the U.S. fails to convince Moslems generally and the Arab nations specifically that it is not an enemy of Islam, Islamist terror could continue to haunt America for a long time.
For more than a decade, America has tried the military route. No doubt, it has kept it safe. But it has failed to snuff the life out of Islamist terrorism. It’s time to rethink the policy.
The main causes of terror are abject poverty, utter hopelessness, and lack of freedom. Americans find these deficiencies deplorable and are willing to assist people suffering from them. Washington should heed this sentiment and establish relations with the people in those countries rather than prop up their corrupt and oppressive regimes.
It’s a remarkable fact that in the relatively recent past a vast majority of people in the Moslem world held the U.S. in high esteem. Perhaps with a change in the U.S. approach, it one day will again.
Shansab is an author and former Afghan industialist, now based in Washington D.C.