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President Obama has aggressively sought advice from Republican and Democratic politicians where vacancies occurred before nominations. He has proposed nominees of balanced temperament, who are smart, ethical, hard working, independent and diverse vis-á-vis ethnicity, gender and ideology. Central District Judges Dolly Gee and Michael Fitzgerald are fine examples.

Senator Patrick LeahyPatrick Joseph LeahyCongress should build on the momentum from spending bill Overnight Tech: Zuckerberg grilled by lawmakers over data scandal | What we learned from marathon hearing | Facebook hit with class action lawsuit | Twitter endorses political ad disclosure bill | Uber buys bike share Overnight Cybersecurity: Zuckerberg faces grilling in marathon hearing | What we learned from Facebook chief | Dems press Ryan to help get Russia hacking records | Top Trump security adviser resigning MORE (D-Vt.), the Judiciary Committee chairman, has expeditiously conducted hearings and votes, moving nominees to the floor where numbers have languished for months. On September 22, the upper chamber recessed without considering 19 very qualified nominees having committee approval because the GOP would not vote.

Republicans must cooperate better. The primary bottleneck has been the floor. Senator Mitch McConnellAddison (Mitch) Mitchell McConnellGOP senator: Democratic opposition to Pompeo 'driven 100 percent by politics' Pompeo lacks votes for positive vote on panel GOP poised to advance rules change to speed up Trump nominees MORE (R-Ky.), the minority leader, has infrequently agreed on ballots. Particularly troubling has been GOP unwillingness to consider excellent consensus nominees, inaction that violates chamber traditions. When the Senate has eventually voted, it easily confirmed many nominees, like Mark Walker, who won 4-0 approval last week.

The three Central District openings are critical. Obama has suggested three highly qualified nominees. He should continue working closely with Leahy and Senator Harry ReidHarry Mason ReidGOP poised to advance rules change to speed up Trump nominees Dems walk tightrope on Pompeo nomination The Memo: Teens rankle the right with gun activism MORE (D-Nev.), the majority leader, who arranges debates and floor votes, and their GOP counterparts to facilitate appointments.

Obama must also keep cooperating with California Democratic Senators Dianne FeinsteinDianne Emiel FeinsteinSunday Shows Preview: Emmanuel Macron talks ahead of state dinner CIA declassifies memo on nominee's handling of interrogation tapes Senate panel punts Mueller protection bill to next week MORE and Barbara BoxerBarbara Levy BoxerThe ‘bang for the buck’ theory fueling Trump’s infrastructure plan Kamala Harris endorses Gavin Newsom for California governor Dems face hard choice for State of the Union response MORE. Both have established selection committees, which solicit applications, interview candidates and make suggestions to the legislators who correspondingly recommend prospects to the administration.

Those actions led Obama to nominate Central District Deputy Federal Public Defender Jesus Bernal on April 25, 2012, Central District Magistrate Judge Fernando Olguin on May 14 and Los Angeles County Superior Court Judge Beverly Reid O’Connell on November 14. Bernal served as Deputy Public Defender in the Los Angeles office for ten years and has since been the Directing Attorney of the Riverside office. He previously engaged in complex litigation for Los Angeles’ Heller, Ehrman law firm. Judge Olguin has been a Magistrate Judge since 2001. Judge O’Connell has served on the state bench since 2005, litigated civil cases at Morrison & Foerster for five years before that and earlier served as a Central District Assistant U.S. Attorney for a decade.

Senator Leahy swiftly arranged June hearings for the first two nominees at which Senators Feinstein and Boxer expressed their enthusiastic support. Senator Charles GrassleyCharles (Chuck) Ernest GrassleyGrassley renews complaints about History Channel Republicans divided over legislation protecting Mueller The Hill's Morning Report: Inside the Comey memos MORE (R-Iowa), the Ranking Member, rigorously questioned both nominees. In July, the Judiciary Committee reported Bernal and Olguin on voice votes with Utah Senator Mike LeeMichael (Mike) Shumway LeeSenate confirms Trump’s pick to lead NASA Key senators warn Trump of North Korea effort on Syria Rep. Jordan: Action in Syria ‘should be debated in Congress’ MORE voting no to protest Obama’s January Executive recess appointments. Senator McConnell (R-Ky.) entered an agreement for a floor vote on Bernal this week and should do so for Olguin before the Senate adjourns because they are well qualified and the Central District requires all of its judges to effectively address its huge, complicated docket. Judge O’Connell will testify at a Wednesday hearing, which the California senators will probably attend to voice their strong support, while Grassley is likely to carefully question the jurist.

The three Central District of California vacancies undermine justice. Thus, senators must quickly approve President Obama’s excellent nominees, so that the court can deliver justice.

Tobias is the Williams Chair in Law, University of Richmond.