Rep. Rob Woodall (R-Ga.) will replace incoming House Majority Whip Steve Scalise (R-La.) as chairman of the Republican Study Committee.
Woodall, who won the election for RSC chairman on Wednesday, will become the interim RSC chairman on July 16 and serve until the end of the 113th Congress.
More than 170 House Republicans are members of the RSC, which represents the most conservative wing of the House GOP and pushes far-right policies.
"It is both humbling and exciting to have the opportunity to lead this fantastic group of individuals committed to advancing conservative principles," Woodall said in a statement. "Under Chairman Scalise's leadership the RSC has continued championing the ideals we all share, and I am committed to preserving these values."
The outgoing RSC chairman congratulated Woodall in a statement following the vote.
"I look forward to working with Rob in our new roles as we continue promoting the conservative solutions necessary to unite our conference and get our country back on track," Scalise said.
Scalise was viewed as the leadership's preference to lead the often-unruly RSC over Rep. Tom Graves (R-Ga.), who had been endorsed by the group's founding members.
But Woodall and Scalise are similarly conservative. Scalise holds an 81 percent score from conservative group Heritage Action, compared to Woodall's 75 percent. Graves's Heritage Action score is 86 percent.
Woodall currently serves as chairman of the RSC's Budget and Spending Task Force, a post he has held since the start of this Congress. He led efforts earlier this year to offer an RSC budget alternative that proposed deeper domestic spending cuts than the official House GOP budget.
Woodall is not expected to seek reelection as RSC chairman for the next Congress, which starts in January, 2015. Several Republicans, including Reps. Mick Mulvaney (S.C.) and Louie Gohmert (Texas), have expressed interest in succeeding Woodall.