Following the failed cloture vote, Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Patrick LeahyPatrick Joseph LeahyOvernight Energy: EPA declines to write new rule for toxic spills | Senate blocks move to stop Obama water rule | EPA bought 'tactical' pants and polos Senate panel advances three spending bills FBI has no excuse to hide future scandals from American public MORE (D-Vt.) warned that the Republicans' stubbornness on the matter could have national-security implications. 

“Senate Republicans have chosen to filibuster his nomination as deputy attorney general of the United States, the second highest position at the Justice Department with critical national-security responsibilities," said Leahy. "This is the wrong filibuster at the wrong time."

The Senate rejected Cole's confirmation once last year, but President Obama recess-appointed him to the position, which allows him to fill the role for the remainder of 2011.

The Senate adjourned at about 7 p.m.