Sen. Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.) said Boehner could solve the legislative stalemate "with the snap of his fingers."
Democrats easily blocked the measure in a 47-43 procedural vote.
Sen. John Barrasso (R-Wyo.) said Obama has "mishandled" the negotiations.
Sen. Harry Reid said Monday's vote on going to conference is "an exercise in futility."
The Utah Republican said lawmakers should coincide the "threat of sanctions" with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's speech
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) on Monday said the Senate will vote this week on legislation that could override President Obama's veto of the Keystone XL pipeline.
McConnell also said bills on human trafficking...
He said the Speaker is "torn between what's right and the hard right."
Sen. Joe Donnelly will vote to roll back actions from last year.
The Democratic leader said a "clean" bill to fund Homeland Security would pass the House.