Amtrak, Charles Schumer says, "will be forced to rob Peter to pay Paul."
The Kentucky Republican's move means senators could take a procedural vote on Saturday.
The Senate will try to end debate on a "fast-track" trade bill.
"My voice is rapidly leaving, my bedtime has long since passed," he said as he wrapped up.
The 2016 hopeful is speaking out against "a direct violation of the fourth amendment."
Alexander Bolton 05/20/15 12:45 PM EDT
Sen. Maria Cantwell is demanding a vote on reauthorizing the bank.
More than 100 amendments have been filed, but senators have only voted on two.
Senators are bogged down in a fight over amendments to "fast track" trade legislation.
The Senate majority leader faced criticism for his treatment of amendments to the bill.