The bill has some bipartisan support, but faces an all-but-certain Obama veto.
Sen. Ben Sasse (R-Neb.) was the lone "no" vote.
The Alabama senator says Republicans "have a second chance" on trade.
The bank is set to expire at the end of the month.
They say the Internet has made a Commerce Department agency obsolete.
The Republican called for "a little more trust" ahead of trade votes.
The presidential candidate wants to reduce State Department funding every 30 days.
Sanders said lawmakers should repeal a "disastrous law" passed as part of a spending bill.
Senators are expected to vote on two nomination's Monday evening.
The House and Senate must now try to merge their two defense policy bills.