Obama's long-delayed nominee for attorney general could get a final vote as soon as Thursday.
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell touted the vote as a win for Republicans.
The amendment clears the way for passage of an anti-human-trafficking bill.
Sanders said that there has not been "a lot of transparency" on TPP legislation.
The Senate is expected to vote on the legislation Wednesday.
The Nevada Democrat said that it "turns my stomach" to hear discussions of a peace deal in Syria that includes Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.
Senators are expected to vote on a long-stalled bill to curb human trafficking.
Mazie Hirono would increase the max Pell Grant and expand aid programs to "Dreamers."
The bill will be placed on the Senate's calendar without going through the committee process.
The Senate Majority leader plans a series of votes for Wednesday.