He said Boehner "tried to do the right thing under almost impossible circumstances."
The short-term bill includes funding for Planned Parenthood.
Cruz's push comes as lawmakers are expected to meet the Chinese president Friday.
The legislation wouldn't impact the current Congress.
But the glow of the pontiff's historic visit is likely to be short-lived.
The legislation would not defund Planned Parenthood.
The vote thwarted the opening move by Republicans to avoid a shutdown on Oct. 1.
Francis lived up to his reputation as a provocative figure.
The Texas Republican wants to know how the White House vets Syrian refugees.
The 2016 candidate slammed GOP lawmakers for "surrendering at the outset" to Obama.