Passage is meant to ensure there is no disruption of farm programs.
Republicans rejected a move by Democrats to add unemployment benefits to the bill.
The Senate voted 79-19 to confirm Landya McCafferty’s nomination to serve as a judge on the U.S. District Court of New Hampshire.
The Senate is expected to spend the rest of the week on executive and judicial nominees.
The Senate confirmed a district court judge for New York Thursday, as it continues to work through several of President Obama’s nominees this week.
The Senate voted 70-29 to confirm Elizabeth Wolford to be U.S. District Judge for the Western District of New York.
The Senate on Thursday morning confirmed an Obama administration nominee to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), after Republicans talked through the night to protest the Democratic decision to prevent filibusters against nominations.
Republicans forced Democrats to use all 30 hours of debate on the nomination.
The House approved legislation on Wednesday that would allow the Department of Veterans Affairs to dig up and remove deceased veterans from military cemeteries if they are found to have committed a capital crime.
The House on Wednesday approved legislation that would boost funding for research into pediatric diseases, a bill that was made a priority in recent weeks by House Majority Leader Eric Cantor (R-Va.).
The vote on the Defense bill would occur under a suspension process.
The Senate voted 56-42 Tuesday to end debate on the nomination of Nina Pillard to serve on the D.C. Circuit Court.
Earlier Tuesday, the Senate also voted 56-38 to confirm Patricia Millett to the D.C. Circuit Court — the second most important court because it has jurisdiction over most federal agencies.