Elizabeth Warren argued that her failed amendment "protects America's sovereignty."
The provision would have required that any future trade deals submitted under fast-track include enforceable currency provisions.
A group of House Democrats wants to make federal and state prisoners eligible for Pell Grants to pay for higher education.
The senators said they need the review to "fully assess" the Iran nuclear deal.
Senators are quickly nearing a weeklong Memorial Day recess.
Senators are still seeking a deal to allow for more amendment votes on the "fast-track" trade bill.
Before Thursday, the Senate had only confirmed two judges this year.
"We can make it difficult, but the end won't change," the Senate majority leader warned.
The measure would have insisted on public access before fast-track designation.
Rep. Westmoreland (R-Ga.) called on the State Department to turn over Benghazi documents.