Bernie Sanders's push to recognize man-made climate change was voted down.
Only Ted Cruz didn't vote for a measure from Debbie Stabenow.
The Progressive Caucus, Black Caucus and House Democrats each offered alternative fiscal visions.
The RSC budget would cut $7.1 trillion in spending over the next decade.
"As dire as the deficit is ... right now we are facing a far greater risk."
Kirk's nonbinding amendment would get senators on the record about his legislation.
Sen. Mike Enzi said the budget wasn't the place to tackle student loan debt.
Rep. Steve Israel accused the GOP of waging a "cold war against hardworking Americans."
Afghan President Ashraf Ghani speech comes in the wake of President Obama's announcement that he will slow troop drawdown.
Rubio said he wants to use projected defense budget numbers from fiscal year 2012.