Customers can pay $70 per month for the Internet service or $120 for Internet and TV. The TV service comes with a Nexus 7 tablet computer as a remote.
Google has not said whether it plans to expand the service nationwide.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Chairman Julius Genchowski, who has pushed to expand broadband Internet access, applauded Google for experimenting with ultrafast Internet connections.
"For the United States to remain globally competitive, we need to keep pushing the boundaries of broadband capabilities and foster testbeds of broadband innovation," he said. "Abundance in broadband speeds and capacity – moving from megabits to gigabits – will unleash breakthrough innovations in healthcare, education, business services, and more."
Sen. Roy Blunt (R-Mo.) tweeted that he is "very pleased" that Google chose Kansas City for the new service.
The nonprofit group Gig.U also plans to build ultrafast Internet networks in a few select towns and cities.