During the calls, Biden listened to the participants and "solicited their ideas on how to curb gun violence in this country," a White House official said.
The vice president also "reiterated the administration's commitment" to the issue and underscored that the problem "requires immediate action," the official said.
After a string of meetings this week, Biden is expected to report his findings to President Obama. Biden told reporters on Wednesday that Obama could take executive action on gun control.
The meetings follow the massacre in December at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn.
White House officials said participants on one call included Govs. Dannel Malloy (D-Conn.), Jan Brewer (R-Ariz.), Phil Bryant (R-Miss.), Lincoln Chafee (R-R.I.), Mark Dayton (Minn.), Gary Herbert (R-Utah), John Hickenlooper (D-Colo.), John Kasich (R-Ohio), Jack Markell (D-Del.), Jay Nixon (D-Mo.), Martin O'Malley (D-Md.), Sean Parnell (R-Alaska), Peter Shumlin (D-Vt.), Rick Snyder (R-Mich.) and Scott Walker (R-Wis.).
About 16 mayors, along with state and local officials, participated in a separate call, according to the White House.