Dems joined with Republicans in a 70-27 vote, despite Obama's veto threat.
The airstrike early Saturday morning killed 22 civilians.
Defense Secretary Carter said the strikes were "pouring gasoline on the fire."
The two leaders both delivered speeches at the UN General Assembly.
Under a yearlong CR, the Army would have $6.6B less than requested for 2016.
A report claimed service members were ordered to ignore abuse of young boys.
Congress appropriated $500 million for the program last year.
Conservatives rebelled ahead of a procedural vote on Wednesday.
Asked if Dems could sustain a veto of a disapproval measure, Pelosi said "yes."
Kerry had several sharp exchanges, underscoring the White House's hard sell.
The Obama administration called the plan "premature."
Obama said the Iran critics were the same ones who backed the Iraq war.
Democrats didn't move to filibuster the bill on Tuesday.
The Senate is expected to vote next week, setting up a showdown with Obama.
Deal clears the way for the full House to consider Pentagon spending later this week.
"Why are deadly weapons being sold to those who plan to inflict untold suffering," the pope asked.
"We are not where we should be at this point," Petraeus told senators.
Senate Dems blocked a resolution of disapproval for a third time.
McConnell is threatening a vote on Iran recognizing Israel's right to exist.
Supporters have enough votes to filibuster a measure of disapproval.
Lawmakers pressed them on a provision lifting the arms embargo on Iran.
The effort with Turkey could deepen U.S. involvement in Syria.
GOP leaders asked the White House to hand over those terms "immediately."
Lawmakers said Congress should have weighed in on the deal first.