Agency officials said more must be done to encourage those likeliest to contract HIV to protect themselves and seek routine testing.
"That so many young people become infected with HIV each year is a preventable tragedy," said CDC Director Thomas R. Frieden in a statement.
"All young people can protect their health, avoid contracting and transmitting the virus, and learn their HIV status."
The analysis found that 35 percent of 18-24 year olds have been tested for HIV, a figure that was much lower for high school students (13 percent).
The CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics call for routine HIV testing for young people, in part to ensure that those who have the virus receive care.
"Partially as a result of lower testing levels, HIV-infected people under the age of 25 are significantly less likely than those who are older to get and stay in HIV care, and to have their virus controlled at a level that helps them stay healthy and reduce their risk of transmitting HIV to partners," the CDC wrote.
The analysis estimated that about 12,200 new HIV infections occurred in 2010 among people ages 13-24.