Meng, who represents part of Queens, called the stores' lapses "disgraceful."
“It is unconscionable that many stores have such a reckless disregard for our babies, and it’s another example of putting profits ahead of safety," Meng said in a statement.
"Parents expect that the products they purchase for their infants to consume are safe and healthy, and that expectation is not one bit unreasonable."
Meng's bill would make it illegal for stores to sell expired baby formula and would fine them up to $200,000 for breaking the law.
If passed, the measure would be the first federal prohibition of its kind.
The Food and Drug Administration requires that baby formula display an expiration date, but it does not penalize stores that continue to sell formula past its use-by date.
Expired formula loses its nutritional content over time, disrupting infants' healthy development. Some parents have also blamed expired formula for symptoms resembling food poisoning in babies.