Highway Trust Fund
The state is the latest to increase its own road fees as Congress punts on federal spending.
President Obama is expected to sign the measure before funding expires on Aug. 1.
They said they begrudgingly voted for the temporary fix.
The House has said it will pass a three-month patch and then leave town.
The Senate majority whip said lawmakers would negotiate a long-term fix after recess.
The chamber is driving ahead with its multiyear proposal, despite House objections.
The House is balking at a multi-year Senate highway bill.
Lawmakers are up against a Friday deadline for renewing road funding.
The clock is ticking to renew highway funding before lawmakers leave for the August recess.
The funding was increased from $200 million to $815 million.
"It's the first step on much longer road," the Senate Majority Leader said.
The Florida senator voted after cancer surgery to allow debate on the roads bill to proceed.
The minority leader said Republicans should have approved a long-term transportation bill.
The Senate is expected to approve the temporary patch on Thursday afternoon.
"That's one bill," he said of GOP squabbling on road funding.
The Senate is pushing to finish a long-term highway bill, although the House has rebuffed it.
The House is planning to vote on a three-month transportation extension and then leave town.
The House plans to approve a three-month highway spending bill on Wednesday and then leave town.
The House has warned it will not take up the Senate bill.
Lawmakers have one week to renew federal road funding.
Republicans should increase the gas tax to pay for roads, they said.
Press secretary Josh Earnest said Obama is adamant the bill include Ex-Im Bank renewal.
The group objects to both the measure's size and price tag of the roads bill.
Press Secretary Josh Earnest said the Senate should renew the Ex-Im bank renewal and road funding.