The program is expected to cost several billion dollars, according to a senior administration official.
The White House argues that the expanded Internet access will provide teachers with more tools, make learning more engaging and better prepare students for 21st century jobs.
President Obama will push for the proposal at a middle school in Mooresville, N.C., on Thursday during remarks at 2:55 p.m. EDT.
The plan does not require congressional approval. Instead, the White House is calling on the Federal Communications Commission to expand E-Rate, an existing program that subsidizes Internet access in schools and libraries.
Read more on The Hill's Hillicon Valley blog.