Vitter's campaign has angered many on Capitol Hill.
The Louisiana Republican argues that Congress should deny itself the traditional benefit of healthcare subsidies now that members and staff are entering ObamaCare's insurance exchanges.
Federal workers, like employees of most major companies, receive an employer contribution to their healthcare premiums as a job benefit.
Critics like Vitter have framed this contribution as a special subsidy not afforded to other participants in the new ObamaCare marketplaces.
They hope to put senators on the spot with an up-or-down vote on the subsidies.
"I don't know when or on what bill, but I'm going to get that vote and it'll give every senator the chance to either stand with America or stand with Washington," Vitter said.