The Hill's Syria Whip List: Obama seeks to turn tide with House, public (video)

President Obama is facing steep opposition in the House to a military strike against Syria. 

Dozens of Republicans oppose Obama's request for authorization of a military strike. They have been joined by more than 30 Democrats who say they would vote against or are leaning toward voting against a strike. 

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Prospects in the Senate are better, but there is no guarantee the White House will prevail there either. 

Public opinion is against the president. Several polls show more voters oppose intervening in Syria than support a strike, even if it is to punish that country for the use of chemical weapons. 

Obama is trying to turn around public opinion with a media offensive and will address the nation Tuesday night from the Oval Office. But it is unclear whether it will be possible for him to turn the numbers around in the House and Senate. 

The following is the The Hill's Whip List on Syria.

Recent updates: Rep. Joe Courtney (D-Conn.), Sen. Heidi HeitkampMary (Heidi) Kathryn HeitkampPro-trade groups enlist another ex-Dem lawmaker to push for Trump's NAFTA replacement Pro-trade group targets 4 lawmakers in push for new NAFTA Biden office highlights support from women after second accuser comes forward MORE (D-N.D.), Rep. Reid RibbleReid James RibbleSetting the record straight about No Labels With Trump, conservatives hope for ally in 'War on Christmas' GOP rushes to embrace Trump MORE (R-Wis.), Rep. Billy Long (R-Mo.), Rep. Tulsi GabbardTulsi GabbardTulsi Gabbard fundraises off 4/20: 'Appalls me' that feds consider marijuana illegal Groups, lawmakers use 4/20 to raise awareness about marijuana sentencing reform Several 2020 Dems say they're ready to face Fox News town hall MORE (D-Hawaii), Rep. Rodney FrelinghuysenRodney Procter FrelinghuysenThe 31 Trump districts that will determine the next House majority Top House GOP appropriations staffer moves to lobbying shop Individuals with significant disabilities need hope and action MORE (R-N.J.), Sen. Elizabeth WarrenElizabeth Ann WarrenTim Ryan doesn't back impeachment proceedings against Trump Schiff: Democrats 'may' take up impeachment proceedings Trump claims Democrats' plans to probe admin will cost them 'big time' in 2020 MORE (D-Mass.), Sen. Debbie StabenowDeborah (Debbie) Ann StabenowDemocratic proposals to overhaul health care: A 2020 primer We can accelerate a cure for Alzheimer's Bipartisan senators offer bill to expand electric vehicle tax credit MORE (D-Mich.), Sen. Kelly AyotteKelly Ann AyotteSchultz recruiting GOP insiders ahead of possible 2020 bid Bottom Line US, allies must stand in united opposition to Iran’s bad behavior MORE (R-N.H.), Rep. Loretta Sanchez (D-Calif.), Rep. John YarmuthJohn Allen YarmuthDivided Dems look to regroup On The Money — Presented by Job Creators Network — GOP senators urge Trump not to nominate Cain | Treasury expected to miss Dem deadline on Trump tax returns | Party divisions force Dems to scrap budget vote | House passes IRS reform bill Left-center divide forces Dems to scrap budget vote MORE (D-Ky.), Sen. Mark PryorMark Lunsford PryorMedicaid rollback looms for GOP senators in 2020 Cotton pitches anti-Democrat message to SC delegation Ex-Sen. Kay Hagan joins lobby firm MORE (D-Ark.), Rep. Brett GuthrieSteven (Brett) Brett GuthrieCarole King lobbies lawmakers in support of bill to protect the Rockies Democrats drill EPA official over decrease in polluter settlements under Trump Democrats will push to retake vote on funding government after chaos on the floor MORE (R-Ky.), Rep. Lamar Smith (R-Texas), Sen. John HoevenJohn Henry HoevenOvernight Energy: Bipartisan Senate group seeks more funding for carbon capture technology | Dems want documents on Interior pick's lobbying work | Officials push to produce more electric vehicle batteries in US Officials, automakers aim to produce more electric vehicle batteries in US: report FCC claims on broadband access under scrutiny MORE (R-N.D.), Sen. Mike CrapoMichael (Mike) Dean CrapoGraham says he's 'not interested' in Mueller testifying Senate needs to stand up to Trump's Nixonian view of the Fed Senate bill seeks to bring freedom back to banking MORE (R-Idaho), Rep. Phil GingreyJohn (Phil) Phillip Gingrey2017's top health care stories, from ObamaCare to opioids Beating the drum on healthcare Former GOP chairman joins K Street MORE (R-Ga.), Rep. Richard Hudson (R-N.C.), Rep. Lynn Westmoreland (R-Ga.), Sen. Al FrankenAlan (Al) Stuart FrankenWinners and losers from first fundraising quarter Election analyst says Gillibrand doesn't have 'horsepower to go the full distance' Gillibrand campaign links low fundraising to Al Franken backlash: memo MORE (D-Minn.), Rep. Vicky Hartzler (R-Mo.), Sen. Charles SchumerCharles (Chuck) Ellis SchumerHillicon Valley: House Dems subpoena full Mueller report | DOJ pushes back at 'premature' subpoena | Dems reject offer to view report with fewer redactions | Trump camp runs Facebook ads about Mueller report | Uber gets B for self-driving cars Dem legal analyst says media 'overplayed' hand in Mueller coverage Former FBI official praises Barr for 'professional' press conference MORE (D-N.Y.), Rep. Blake FarentholdRandolph (Blake) Blake FarentholdMembers spar over sexual harassment training deadline Female Dems see double standard in Klobuchar accusations Lawmaker seeks to ban ex-members from lobbying until sexual harassment settlements repaid MORE (R-Texas.), Rep. Grace Napolitano (D-Calif.), Rep. Steven Cohen (D-Tenn.), Rep. Stephen Lynch (D-Mass.), Rep. Fred Upton (R-Mich.), Rep. Bob Gibbs (R-Ohio), Rep. Chaka Fattah (D-Pa.), Rep. John Larson (D-Conn.) and Rep. John Lewis (D-Ga.).

— Last updated on Sept. 9 at 12:40 p.m.


YES/LEANING YES

Senate (26) (17 Democrats, 9 Republicans)

Kelly Ayotte (R-N.H.) — Comments suggest she is a yes though wants an international coalition.

Barbara BoxerBarbara Levy BoxerOnly four Dem senators have endorsed 2020 candidates Hispanic civil rights icon endorses Harris for president California AG Becerra included in Bloomberg 50 list MORE (D-Calif.) — Remarks at Tuesday's hearing indicate she will vote yes. Boxer voted against the Iraq War.

Richard BurrRichard Mauze BurrGOP senator: 'No problem' with Mueller testifying Collins backs having Mueller testify Graham says he's 'not interested' in Mueller testifying MORE (R-N.C.) — Supports resolution, according to the newsobserver.com.

Ben CardinBenjamin (Ben) Louis CardinOnly four Dem senators have endorsed 2020 candidates Senate Dem: Trump 'using immigrants as pawns' Bottom Line MORE (D-Md.) — Leaning yes.

Tom CarperThomas (Tom) Richard CarperOnly four Dem senators have endorsed 2020 candidates Koch network launches ad campaign opposing Trump's proposed gas tax Big Dem names show little interest in Senate MORE (D-Del.) — Said he's "inclined to support" the president.

Bob CaseyRobert (Bob) Patrick CaseyLicense to discriminate: Religious exemption laws are trampling rights in rural America More than 30 Senate Dems ask Trump to reconsider Central American aid cuts Endorsements? Biden can't count on a flood from the Senate MORE Jr. (D-Pa.) — Said Saturday that it's in the U.S. interest to respond to most recent chemical attack. 

Saxby ChamblissClarence (Saxby) Saxby ChamblissRepublicans say Democrats holding up disaster relief as 'Sandy payback' Ex-House Intel chair: Intel panel is wrong forum to investigate Trump's finances The Hill's Morning Report - Trump budget reignites border security fight MORE (R-Ga.) — Said Saturday a "red line" was crossed a long time ago, and the U.S. "must respond."

Chris CoonsChristopher (Chris) Andrew CoonsMenendez, Rubio lead Senate effort to regulate Venezuelan sanctions Dem report questions State Dept. decision to revoke award to Trump critic Senate Dem calls on Trump to apologize for attacks on McCain MORE (D-Del.) — Said on MSNBC he's "inclined" to support the president but made clear that he is not a firm yes.

Bob CorkerRobert (Bob) Phillips CorkerPollster says Trump unlikely to face 'significant' primary challenge GOP gets used to saying 'no' to Trump Democrats introduce bill to rein in Trump on tariffs MORE (R-Tenn.) — Remarks suggest he will vote yes.

Dick DurbinRichard (Dick) Joseph DurbinDurbin calls Mueller report findings on Trump team 'troubling' Congress opens door to fraught immigration talks McConnell: 'Past time' for immigration-border security deal MORE (D-Ill.) — Voted in favor of resolution in committee. 

Dianne FeinsteinDianne Emiel FeinsteinDems reject Barr's offer to view Mueller report with fewer redactions Five takeaways from Mueller's report Only four Dem senators have endorsed 2020 candidates MORE (D-Calif.) — Said before Obama's request for congressional authorization that the world could not let such a heinous attack pass without meaningful response.

Jeff FlakeJeffrey (Jeff) Lane FlakePollster says Trump unlikely to face 'significant' primary challenge Trump gives nod to vulnerable GOP Sen. McSally with bill signing Flake opens up about threats against him and his family MORE (R-Ariz.) — Voted in favor of resolution in committee.

Al Franken (D-Minn.) — Says he is leaning toward action because the U.S. needs to demonstrate chemical weapons can't be used.

Lindsey GrahamLindsey Olin GrahamHillicon Valley: House Dems subpoena full Mueller report | DOJ pushes back at 'premature' subpoena | Dems reject offer to view report with fewer redactions | Trump camp runs Facebook ads about Mueller report | Uber gets B for self-driving cars DOJ: Dem subpoena for Mueller report is 'premature and unnecessary' Dems reject Barr's offer to view Mueller report with fewer redactions MORE (R-S.C.) — Working closely with the White House on Syria.

Kay HaganKay Ruthven Hagan Embattled senators fill coffers ahead of 2020 NC state senator meets with DSCC as Dems eye challenge to Tillis GOP, Dems locked in fight over North Carolina fraud probe MORE (D-N.C.) — Said chemical attack requires "a strong response that will prevent this from happening again."

Johnny IsaksonJohn (Johnny) Hardy IsaksonCongress punts on disaster aid amid standoff with Trump, Dems Overnight Defense: Transgender troops rally as ban nears | Trump may call more troops to border | National Guard expects 3M training shortfall from border deployment | Pentagon to find housing for 5,000 migrant children Pompeo: Russia complying with nuclear treaty that's up for renewal MORE (R-Ga.) — Said he supports military action.

Tim KaineTimothy (Tim) Michael KaineOnly four Dem senators have endorsed 2020 candidates Democratic proposals to overhaul health care: A 2020 primer Dems ask Justice Dept to release findings of Acosta-Epstein investigation MORE (D-Va.) — Voted in favor of resolution in committee. 

Mark KirkMark Steven KirkThe global reality behind 'local' problems Dems vow swift action on gun reform next year This week: Trump heads to Capitol Hill MORE (R-Ill.) — On Facebook, said he'd support "a narrow authorization for a missile strike targeting those responsible for using chemical weapons."

Carl LevinCarl Milton LevinListen, learn and lead: Congressional newcomers should leave the extremist tactics at home House Democrats poised to set a dangerous precedent with president’s tax returns The Hill's 12:30 Report — Sponsored by Delta Air Lines — White House to 'temporarily reinstate' Acosta's press pass after judge issues order | Graham to take over Judiciary panel | Hand recount for Florida Senate race MORE (D-Mich.) — Armed Services Committee chairman says he'll back resolution.

Robert MenendezRobert (Bob) MenendezWe can accelerate a cure for Alzheimer's The Hill's 12:30 Report: Manafort sentenced to total of 7.5 years in prison Acting Defense chief calls Graham an 'ally' after tense exchange MORE (D-N.J.) — Foreign Relations panel chairman is working on the measure.

John McCainJohn Sidney McCainEarth Day founder's daughter: Most Republican leaders believe in climate change in private Trump gives nod to vulnerable GOP Sen. McSally with bill signing Democrats need a 'celebrity' candidate — and it's not Biden or Sanders MORE (R-Ariz.) — Voted in favor of resolution in committee. 

Bill NelsonClarence (Bill) William NelsonTrump administration renews interest in Florida offshore drilling: report Dem reps say they were denied access to immigrant detention center Ex-House Intel chair: Intel panel is wrong forum to investigate Trump's finances MORE (D-Fla.) — Has called on the president to act before Congress votes.

Harry ReidHarry Mason ReidSanders courts GOP voters with 'Medicare for All' plan Glamorization of the filibuster must end Schumer won't rule out killing filibuster MORE (D-Nev.) — Senate majority leader backs the president.

Jeanne ShaheenCynthia (Jeanne) Jeanne Shaheen Embattled senators fill coffers ahead of 2020 William Barr is right to investigate FBI actions during 2016 campaign Trolling of Bill Barr shows how language is twisted to politics MORE (D-N.H.) — Voted in favor of resolution in committee.

Charles Schumer (D-N.Y.) — Will support measure approved by Foreign Relations Committee.

Debbie Stabenow (D-Mich.) — "Clear evidence" and "very high probability they will be used again."

YES/LEANING YES

House (31) (21 Democrats, 10 Republicans)

John BoehnerJohn Andrew Boehner20 years after Columbine, Dems bullish on gun reform Dem says marijuana banking bill will get House vote this spring Trump appears alongside Ocasio-Cortez on Time 100 list MORE (R-Ohio) — Speaker to support military action in big boost for Obama.

Xavier BecerraXavier BecerraTrump is right: Healthcare should be handled by the states California attorney general calls for unauthorized immigration to be decriminalized Pelosi announces lawsuit to block Trump's emergency declaration MORE (D-Calif.) — Fourth-ranking House Democrat tells MSNBC on Sept. 5 he's told White House he'd support a vote authorizing a limited strike.

Corrine BrownCorrine BrownFormer Florida rep sentenced to five years in prison for fraud, tax evasion Genuine veteran charities face a challenge beating the fakes Former Florida rep found guilty of tax evasion, fraud MORE (D-Fla.) — Leaning yes.

Eric CantorEric Ivan CantorGOP faces tough battle to become 'party of health care' 737 crisis tests Boeing's clout in Washington House Republicans find silver lining in minority MORE (R-Va.) — BoehnerJohn Andrew Boehner20 years after Columbine, Dems bullish on gun reform Dem says marijuana banking bill will get House vote this spring Trump appears alongside Ocasio-Cortez on Time 100 list MORE's second in command also backs strike.

Joaquín Castro (D-Texas) — Says he is open to idea of strikes but wants to review evidence.

Gerry ConnollyGerald (Gerry) Edward ConnollyBipartisan group asks DHS, ICE to halt deportations of Iraqi nationals Concerns mount over 2020 census The Hill's Morning Report - Trump vows to close US border with Mexico this week MORE (D-Va.) — Tweeted Monday that the evidence of a chemical attack is strong. He is working with Rep. Chris Van Hollen (D-Md.) on a resolution. His constituents are against it, Connolly conceded to The Washington Post.

Tom CottonThomas (Tom) Bryant CottonOvernight Defense: Senators show skepticism over Space Force | Navy drops charges against officers in deadly collision | Trump taps next Navy chief Senators show deep skepticism on Space Force proposal GOP senators introduce bill to reduce legal immigration  MORE (R-Ark.) — Senate candidate co-wrote an op-ed with Rep. Mike Pompeo (R-Kan.) that argues for a "yes" vote.

Ted Deutch (D-Fla.) — Said on Twitter that he stands behind Obama's call for a "targeted and limited response."

Keith Ellison (D-Minn.) — Reportedly said he's not a "pure pacifist."

Eliot Engel (D-N.Y.) — The top Democrat on the Foreign Affairs Committee backs the president.

Bill FosterGeorge (Bill) William FosterPelosi joins other Dem leaders in support of Chicago Symphony Orchestra strikers This week: Shutdown showdown looms over new Congress Dem calls for closing lawmaker gym, sauna during shutdown MORE (D-Ill.) — Leaning yes.

Alcee Hastings (D-Fla.) — Leaning yes.

Steny Hoyer (D-Md.) — Second-ranking House Dem tweeted Friday that he agreed with the White House that the use of chemical weapons by Syria was unacceptable.

Steve Israel (D-N.Y.) — Dem campaign chief trying to round up support, according to Newsday.

Pete King (R-N.Y.) — His office says King supports a Syria authorization.

Adam Kinzinger (R-Ill.) — Says he's amazed colleagues want to "paralyze ourselves into inaction."

John Kline (R-Minn.) — "...the world is watching."

Sandy Levin (D-Mich.) — Has publicly backed the president.

Luke Messer (R-Ind.) — At House hearing on Sept. 4, said if he had to vote today, he'd vote yes. He has stressed the president should abide by Congress' decision. Otherwise, there will be "a constitutional crisis."

Jim MoranJames (Jim) Patrick MoranLawmakers contemplate a tough political sell: Raising their pay Joe Lieberman says Northam shouldn't resign: Rush to judgment 'is unfair' Former Virginia congressman says Northam shouldn't resign: 'Redemption is a very powerful factor' MORE (D-Va.) — In a release, Moran said, "Now it is up to one of the most divisive, least productive Congresses in history to authorize an intervention and protect the credibility and viability of a U.S. response to Assad's horrific crimes against humanity." 

Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) — House minority leader will be a crucial player on resolution.

Mike Pompeo (R-Kan.) — Co-wrote an op-ed in The Washington Post arguing for U.S. intervention.

Nick RahallNick Joe RahallWe shouldn't allow politics to impede disaster relief Break the cycle of partisanship with infant, child health care programs Clinton mulls role in 2018 midterms MORE (D-W.Va.)

Mike Rogers (R-Mich.) — Intelligence panel chairman predicts resolution will pass Congress.

Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-Fla.) — Former head of the Foreign Affairs Committee is leaning yes.

Jan Schakowsky (D-Ill.) — Told journalist Lynn Sweet of the Chicago Sun-Times she's "gettable."

Brad Sherman (D-Calif.) — Said the red line is "America's red line."

Eric Swalwell (D-Calif.) — Looks to be leaning yes.

Chris Van Hollen (D-Md.) — Has floated a new resolution that is much narrower than Obama's.

Juan Vargas (D-Calif.) — Supports the president.

Debbie Wasserman Schultz (D-Fla.) — Democratic National Committee chairwoman said on CNN that the "world cannot let such a heinous attack pass without a meaningful response."


NO/LEANING NO

Senate (20) (14 Republicans and 6 Democrats)

John BarrassoJohn Anthony BarrassoOvernight Energy: Gillibrand offers bill to ban pesticide from school lunches | Interior secretary met tribal lawyer tied to Zinke casino dispute | Critics say EPA rule could reintroduce asbestos use GOP senator issues stark warning to Republicans on health care Judd Gregg: In praise of Mike Enzi MORE (R-Wyo.) — Voted against resolution in committee.

John BoozmanJohn Nichols BoozmanDemocrats, making a difference is better than making a point GOP senators read Pence riot act before shutdown votes On The Money: Shutdown Day 26 | Pelosi calls on Trump to delay State of the Union | Cites 'security concerns' | DHS chief says they can handle security | Waters lays out agenda | Senate rejects effort to block Trump on Russia sanctions MORE (R-Ark.) — Leaning no.

Mike Crapo (R-Idaho) — "I think that that is a very dangerous step for the president to be taking,” he said, according to an Idaho television station.

Ted CruzRafael (Ted) Edward CruzMichael Bennet declared cancer-free, paving way for possible 2020 run Booker, Harris have missed most Senate votes O'Rourke sweeps through Virginia looking to energize campaign MORE (R-Texas) — The possible 2016 White House candidate is opposed.

Heidi Heitkamp (D-N.D.) — Believes an alternative way forward for dealing with Assad must be found. Cannot support authorization for strike at this time, according to Sept. 9 statement.

John Hoeven (R-N.D.) — "At this point, I do not support a military strike in Syria - North Dakotans and the American people don't support it," he tweeted.

James InhofeJames (Jim) Mountain Inhofe Embattled senators fill coffers ahead of 2020 Overnight Defense: Senators show skepticism over Space Force | Navy drops charges against officers in deadly collision | Trump taps next Navy chief Senators show deep skepticism on Space Force proposal MORE (R-Okla.) — The ranking member of the Armed Services Committee disagrees with Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.), says he cannot support action because of budget cuts.

Ron JohnsonRonald (Ron) Harold JohnsonGOP senator: 'No problem' with Mueller testifying The Hill's Morning Report — Category 5 Mueller storm to hit today GOP senators double down on demand for Clinton email probe documents MORE (R-Wis.) — Voted against resolution in committee.

Mike LeeMichael (Mike) Shumway LeeDems sound alarm over top DOJ nominee Restore Pell Grant eligibility to people in prison Former Democratic aide pleads guilty to doxing GOP senators attending Kavanaugh hearing MORE (R-Utah) — Tea Party leader doesn't believe strike will prevent Syria from using chemical weapons again and worries intervention will bring U.S. deeper into conflict.

Joe ManchinJoseph (Joe) ManchinOn The Money: Cain 'very committed' to Fed bid despite opposition | Pelosi warns no US-UK trade deal if Brexit harms Irish peace | Ivanka Trump says she turned down World Bank job Cain says he won't back down, wants to be nominated to Fed Pro-life Christians are demanding pollution protections MORE (D-W.Va.) — In Sept. 5 statement, says he believes military action at this time is the wrong course of action.

Jerry MoranGerald (Jerry) MoranLive coverage: Barr faces Senate panel as he prepares release of Mueller report Hillicon Valley — Presented by CTIA and America's wireless industry — House panel approves bill restoring net neutrality | FTC asks for more help to police tech | Senate panel advances bill targeting illegal robocalls Senate panel advances bill penalizing illegal robocalls MORE (R-Kan.) — Said U.S. "cannot afford another conflict that taxes our resources without achieving goals that advance American interests." Moran heads the National Republican Senatorial Committee. 

Chris MurphyChristopher (Chris) Scott MurphyOnly four Dem senators have endorsed 2020 candidates More than 30 Senate Dems ask Trump to reconsider Central American aid cuts Long-shot goal of nixing Electoral College picks up steam MORE (D-Conn.) — Voted against resolution in committee.

Rand PaulRandal (Rand) Howard PaulBooker, Harris have missed most Senate votes Trump vetoes measure ending US support for Saudi-led war in Yemen Bottom line MORE (R-Ky.) — Possible 2016 White House candidate has been a critic of military intervention in Syria.

Mark Pryor (D-Ark.) — Said until the administration can "prove a compelling national security interest, clearly define a mission that has a definitive end-state and then build a true coalition of allies," he cannot support military action in Syria.

Jim RischJames (Jim) Elroy Risch Embattled senators fill coffers ahead of 2020 Overnight Defense: Air Force general tapped for Pentagon No. 2 | Dem presses Trump officials on Yemen strike | Pentagon details 4M border deployment cost Top senators warn Turkey: Choose between Russia missile system or US fighter jet MORE (R-Idaho) — "I'm extremely reluctant."

Pat RobertsCharles (Pat) Patrick Roberts Embattled senators fill coffers ahead of 2020 Republicans writing off hard-line DHS candidate The Hill's Morning Report - Trump seeks tougher rules on asylum seekers MORE (R-Kan.) — The former Intelligence panel chairman issued a scathing rebuke of Obama, says the president has no exit plan.

Marco RubioMarco Antonio RubioSenate Republicans tested on Trump support after Mueller Cuban negotiator says Trump's efforts to destabilize Cuba's government will fail Freedom to Compete Act would benefit many American workers MORE (R-Fla.) — Voted against resolution in committee.

Brian Schatz (D-Hawaii) — Says he "concluded that a military strike against Syria is not the answer."

Tom UdallThomas (Tom) Stewart UdallNew Mexico senators request probe into militia group detaining migrants Latino group urges state lawmaker to make primary challenge to Democrat for Georgia House seat Embattled senators fill coffers ahead of 2020 MORE (D-N.M.) — Voted against resolution in committee.

David VitterDavid Bruce VitterBottom Line Bottom Line Top 5 races to watch in 2019 MORE (R-La.) — In a statement on Thursday, says he's concerned getting involved in Syria could make mustering resolve to stop a nuclear Iran "impossible."


NO/LEANING NO

House (144) (109 Republicans, 35 Democrats)

Robert AderholtRobert Brown AderholtAnti-smoking advocates question industry motives for backing higher purchasing age Barr forms team to probe FBI actions in Russia investigation: report The single-sentence Russia bombshell that Attorney General Barr delivered to Congress MORE (R-Ala.) — Told 48 News he needs to be convinced there is a direct threat to the U.S., adding he doesn't believe that now.

Justin AmashJustin AmashBipartisan group asks DHS, ICE to halt deportations of Iraqi nationals Overnight Defense: House votes to end US support for Yemen war | Vote expected to force Trump's second veto of presidency | More Russian troops may head to Venezuela | First 'Space Force' hearing set for next week House ignores Trump veto threat, approves bill ending US support for Yemen war MORE (R-Mich.) — Firm no.

Michele BachmannMichele Marie BachmannMichele Bachmann praises Trump: Americans will 'never see a more godly, biblical president' Will Biden lead a 'return to normalcy' in 2020? Gillibrand becomes latest candidate scrutinized for how she eats on campaign trail MORE (R-Minn.) — Tweeted that she's "adamantly opposed" to military action.

Andy BarrGarland (Andy) Hale BarrOcasio-Cortez plans visit to Kentucky despite being disinvited by GOP colleague Ocasio-Cortez knocks Republican over Kentucky trip: 'GOP thought they could catch us with a bluff' Overnight Energy: Collins receives more donations from Texas oil, gas industry than from Maine residents | Interior chief left meetings off schedule | Omar controversy jeopardizes Ocasio-Cortez trip to coal mine MORE (R-Ky.) — Leaning no.

Kerry BentivolioKerry BentivolioIndiana Republican: Leaders duped me Reindeer farmer saves 'cromnibus' with yes vote High drama as .1T spending package advances by one vote MORE (R-Mich.) — Opposed.

Gus Bilirakis (R-Fla.) — "I share many of your concerns in engaging in this civil war & will be voting no on the authorization of military force in #Syria," he tweeted.

Marsha BlackburnMarsha BlackburnConservative groups defend tech from GOP crackdown Lawmakers weigh challenges in fighting robocalls Senators show deep skepticism on Space Force proposal MORE (R-Tenn.) — Tells CBS News on Sept. 4 that it's correct she's leaning no.

Kevin BradyKevin Patrick BradyTreasury to miss Dem deadline for Trump tax returns Treasury expected to miss Dem deadline on Trump tax returns Mnuchin tells Congress it's 'premature' to talk about Trump tax returns decision MORE (R-Texas) — Doesn't want to waste resources on "unproductive mission." Believes action "is a mistake."

Paul BrounPaul Collins BrounCalifornia lawmaker's chief of staff resigns after indictment Republican candidates run against ghost of John Boehner The Trail 2016: Let’s have another debate! MORE (R-Ga.) — The Senate candidate told local news site CovNews.com, "I do not believe America should be militarily involved in Syria."

Vern Buchanan (R-Fla.) — Buchanan said on Facebook, "I simply cannot support a military strike that is not vital to America's national security interest."

Larry BucshonLarry Dean BucshonGOP balks at Trump drug pricing plan Overnight Health Care: Trump officials allow states to loosen ObamaCare coverage requirements | GOP lawmakers air concerns with Trump drug price plan | Dem single-payer fight shifting to battle over Medicare 'buy-in' | US life expectancy falls GOP lawmakers air concerns with Trump drug pricing move in meeting with health chief MORE (R-Ind.) — Told local media he's "not sold at all," cites constituent opposition.

Michael BurgessMichael Clifton BurgessOvernight Health Care — Presented by PCMA — Sanders to roll out 'Medicare for all' bill | Dems target Juul over Altria ties | Measles cases spike nationwide GOP rep who supports lowering voting age: 'It's on us' if 16-year-olds vote Democratic Divisions emerge over House drug price bills MORE (R-Texas) — Says U.S. action in Syria would be very risky.

John Campbell (R-Calif.) — A spokesperson told The Hill he is a no.

Kathy Castor (D-Fla.) — Opposed.

Jason ChaffetzJason ChaffetzLawmakers contemplate a tough political sell: Raising their pay Top Utah paper knocks Chaffetz as he mulls run for governor: ‘His political career should be over’ Boehner working on memoir: report MORE (R-Utah) — Told The Hill he is leaning no.

Emanuel Cleaver (D-Mo.) — On Sept. 1, he told 41 Action News he would vote no if the vote took place that day.

Tom Cole (R-Okla.) — House deputy whip is leaning no.

Doug Collins (R-Ga.) — Told The Hill he is "a very hard-wing no."

Joe Courtney (D-Conn.) — Has told constituents he is "deeply skeptical."

Kevin Cramer (R-N.D.) — Leaning no.

Rick CrawfordRichard (Rick) CrawfordThe 23 Republicans who voted against the anti-hate resolution House passes anti-hate measure amid Dem tensions GOP announces members who will serve on House intel panel MORE (R-Ark.) — Tweeted Saturday it was imperative that Obama explore alternatives. 

John Culberson (R-Texas) — A firm no. In a Sept. 5 statement said U.S. has no business supporting either side in Syria's civil war. Will encourage colleagues to vote no unless Israel is threatened.

Rodney Davis (R-Ill.) — Leaning no, according to the Chicago Sun-Times.

Peter DeFazio (D-Ore.) — Told local outlet he's not yet convinced and has many questions. Remarks indicate a leaning no.

Scott DesJarlais (R-Tenn.) — DesJarlais is now a firm no.

Ron DeSantis (R-Fla.) — Said on Sept. 4 he cannot support military authorization at this time.

Lloyd Doggett (D-Texas) — Said on MSNBC he is leaning no.

Tammy Duckworth (D-Ill.) — Iraq War veteran is against military action in Syria.

Sean DuffySean Patrick DuffySenate bill seeks to bring freedom back to banking Treasury expected to miss Dem deadline on Trump tax returns CNN's Cuomo: 'There's 100 percent behavior by people' around Trump 'that qualifies as collusion' MORE (R-Wis.) — Opposed.

Jeff Duncan (R-S.C.) — Firm no.

John Duncan Jr. (R-Tenn.) — Firm no. Says, "I simply do not want to see any young Americans killed in Syria." Duncan was one of the few Republicans who voted against the Iraq War.

Renee Ellmers (R-N.C.) — "I cannot support military action against Syria at this time." 

Blake Farenthold (R-Texas) — In Sept. 6 statement, said he would oppose military action.

Mike Fitzpatrick (R-Pa.) — Questions about whether Syrian action is in national interests haven't been met. Says vote will reflect constituent skepticism.

Sam FarrSamuel (Sam) Sharon FarrMedical marijuana supporters hopeful about government funding bill Marijuana advocates to give away free joints on Capitol Hill DEA decision against reclassifying marijuana ignores public opinion MORE (D-Calif.) — Recent remarks suggest he is leaning no.

Stephen FincherStephen Lee FincherLamar Alexander's exit marks end of an era in evolving Tennessee Tensions on immigration erupt in the House GOP Trump backs Blackburn's Tennessee Senate bid MORE (R-Tenn.) — Opposed.

John FlemingJohn Calvin FlemingThe Hill's 12:30 Report: Dems aim to end anti-Semitism controversy with vote today Former congressmen, RNC members appointed to Trump administration roles Overnight Energy: Watchdog opens investigation into Interior chief | Judge halts Pruitt truck pollution rule decision | Winners, losers in EPA, Interior spending bill amendments MORE (R-La.) — "As the situation now stands, I will vote against U.S. military action on Syria."

Bill FloresWilliam (Bill) Hose FloresOvernight Energy: GOP lawmaker parodies Green New Deal in new bill | House Republicans accuse Dems of ramming through climate bill | Park Service chief grilled over shutdown House Republicans accuse Dems of ramming through climate bill Seven Republicans vote against naming post office after ex-Rep. Louise Slaughter MORE (R-Texas)

Randy ForbesJames (Randy) Randy ForbesToo much ‘can do,’ not enough candor Trump makes little headway filling out Pentagon jobs Why there's only one choice for Trump's Navy secretary MORE (R-Va.) — Said on Fox News on Sunday that taking military action is not in nation's best interests.

Jeff FortenberryJeffrey (Jeff) Lane FortenberryTrump approves Nebraska disaster declaration Nebraska lawmakers urge Trump to approve disaster funding 
College professor accused of vandalizing Nebraska GOP lawmaker's campaign signs MORE (R-Neb.) — Opposed.

Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-N.J.) — Has told constituents he is opposed.

Tulsi Gabbard (D-Hawaii) — Iraq War veteran went from undecided to opposed.

John GaramendiJohn Raymond GaramendiOvernight Energy: Pentagon details bases at highest risk from climate change | Dems offer bill to bind Trump to Paris accord | Senate GOP blocks climate panel Overnight Defense: Pentagon transfers B for wall over Dem objections | Top general says North Korean activities 'inconsistent' with denuclearization | Pentagon details bases at risk from climate change Pentagon releases list of military bases most at risk to climate change MORE (D-Calif.) — Opposed.

Scott GarrettErnest (Scott) Scott GarrettManufacturers support Reed to helm Ex-Im Bank Trump taps nominee to lead Export-Import Bank Who has the edge for 2018: Republicans or Democrats? MORE (R-N.J.) — Says the president has not yet convinced the public.

Chris Gibson (R-N.Y.) — Iraq War veteran said on Facebook he urges a no vote.

Bob Gibbs (R-Ohio) — Says Obama hasn't made the case.

Phil Gingrey (R-Ga.) — Chemical weapons use is "reprehensible," but strike would be "imprudent."

Trey GowdyHarold (Trey) Watson GowdyHouse Dem calls on lawmakers to 'insulate' election process following Mueller report Democrats put harassment allegations against Trump on back burner Democrats seize on Mueller-Barr friction MORE (R-S.C.) — Firm no.

Alan GraysonAlan Mark GraysonFlorida's Darren Soto fends off Dem challenge from Alan Grayson Live results: Arizona and Florida hold primaries The Hill's Morning Report: Frustration mounts as Republicans blow up tax message MORE (D-Fla.) — Is rallying support against the measure.

Tim GriffinJohn (Tim) Timothy GriffinFlynn discloses lobbying that may have helped Turkey Tea Party class reassesses record Huckabee's daughter to run '16 campaign MORE (R-Ark.) — Said he is a "strong lean no."

Raúl Grijalva (D-Ariz.) — Has publicly said he is opposed.

Michael Grimm (R-N.Y.) — Initially said he backed measure but has shifted to no.

Brett Guthrie (R-Ky.) — A certain no vote unless the Obama administration presents him with "game changing information."

Luis Gutiérrez (D-Ill.) — Leaning no, according to the Chicago Sun-Times.

Janice Hahn (D-Calif.) — Leaning no.

Colleen Hanabusa (D-Hawaii) — A spokesman says Hanabusa leaning "very strongly against it."

Andy Harris (R-Md.) — Leaning no but plans to "examine all of the evidence before making a decision."

Vicky Hartzler (R-Miss.) — Leaning no, according to a recent press release. “I have deep reservations about the wisdom of launching an attack. I also have doubts about U.S. interests in the matter.”

Joe Heck (R-Nev.) — Leaning no.

Brian Higgins (D-N.Y.) — A solid no: "It is not the time for Americans to be subjected to the potential of yet another unwinnable overseas war."  

George Holding (R-N.C.) — "Nothing I heard from [the administration] convinced me it is necessary to send one American soldier into battle."

Mike Honda (D-Calif.) — Appears to be leaning no.

Richard Hudson (R-N.C.) — Said on Twitter he would oppose military action after "thoughtful consideration."

Tim Huelskamp (R-Kan.) — Said on Facebook that he agrees with constituents and sees no evidence of U.S. interests in a Syrian war.

Bill Huizenga (R-Mich.) — "I can't support" military action yet, he said, according to mlive.com.

Randy Hultgren (R-Ill.) — Concerned military action will result in unforeseen consequences. 

Lynn Jenkins (R-Kan.) — Has told constituents she is opposed: "... it is still unclear who is on the other side of this conflict."

Hank Johnson (D-Ga.) — Said he is "deeply skeptical that use of force is in our national interest."

Sam JohnsonSamuel (Sam) Robert JohnsonTexas New Members 2019 Many authors of GOP tax law will not be returning to Congress May brings key primaries across nation MORE (R-Texas) — The decorated combat veteran has a slew of questions on the mission and appears to be leaning no.

Walter Jones (R-N.C.) — Critic of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan is a firm no.

Jack Kingston (R-Ga.) — Senate candidate told WSAV-TV he is leaning no.

Leonard Lance (R-N.J.) — Lance has told local media outlets he is not convinced on U.S. intervention.

James Lankford (R-Okla.) — The lawmaker, who is close to GOP leaders, is opposed.

Tom Latham (R-Iowa) — Has said the president hasn't made the case for intervention.

Barbara Lee (D-Calif.) — Lee, who voted against the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, is "a strong no," her office states.

Frank LoBiondo (R-N.J.) — Told The Hill on Sept. 5 he is a no at this point.

Billy Long (R-Mo.) — "We should stay out of it."

Cynthia LummisCynthia Marie LummisTrump picks ex-oil lobbyist David Bernhardt for Interior secretary Trump’s shifting Cabinet to introduce new faces The Hill's Morning Report — What a shutdown would mean for the government MORE (R-Wyo.) — Told Wyoming radio station K2 she is opposed.

Stephen Lynch (D-Mass.) — Against military intervention, according to his office.

Kenny Marchant (R-Texas) — “I will not vote for U.S. military intervention in Syria," he said in a statement. "President Obama has not presented Congress enough supporting evidence to overcome my serious reservations about ordering the use of U.S. military forces."

Tom Marino (R-Pa.) — Is "absolutely opposed to any intervention in Syria at this time." 

Thomas Massie (R-Ky.) — Firm no.

Jim MathesonJames (Jim) David MathesonTrump EPA eases standards for coal ash disposal Utah redistricting reform measure likely to qualify for ballot Trump's budget targets affordable, reliable power MORE (D-Utah) — Is opposed, according to ksl.com.

Michael McCaul (R-Texas) — A crucial vote, the Homeland Security Committee chairman on Thursday said if a vote were held that day, he'd vote no.

Tom McClintock (R-Calif.) — A no vote.

Jim McDermottJames (Jim) Adelbert McDermottPromoting the voice of Korean Americans Lobbying World Dem lawmaker: Israel's accusations start of 'war on the American government' MORE (D-Wash.) — Wants answers to many questions.

James McGovern (D-Mass.) — Sounds more like a no than a yes. Told Radio Boston, "I'm very skeptical. I'm just sick and tired of all these wars." McGovern has said the president should withdraw his request for congressional authorization.

David McKinleyDavid Bennett McKinleyDivisions emerge over House drug price bills Key Republican says Dems left him out of process on drug pricing bills Representing patients’ voices MORE (R-W.Va.) — Told the Charleston Daily Mail that he is "not comfortable putting Americans in harm's way."

Jerry McNerney (D-Calif.) — Local outlet reports he is leaning no.

Pat Meehan (R-Pa.) — Remarks to Lancaster News, Meehan sounds like a no.

Candice Miller (R-Mich.) — Says the "case has not been made" for action.

Jeff Miller (R-Fla.) — Opposed, according to the Tampa Bay Times.

Markwayne Mullin (R-Okla.) — Cannot support "any U.S. military action or involvement."

Grace Napolitano (D-Calif.) — Told CNN on Sept. 3 the U.S. needs to "stay out of wars" and pay more attention to own backyard.

Rick Nolan (D-Minn.) — Is strongly opposed to a military strike.

Rich Nugent (R-Fla.) — Sent letter to Obama on Friday opposing military intervention.

Devin Nunes (R-Calif.) — Has criticized Obama’s plan as having no “coherence whatsoever.”

Erik Paulsen (R-Minn.) — Minnesota delegation is divided on Syria motion.

Collin Peterson (D-Minn.) — Local media reporting Peterson is inclined to vote no.

Mark PocanMark William PocanAppeals court rules House chaplain can reject secular prayers Dems counter portrait of discord Divided Dems look to regroup MORE (D-Wis.) — Sounds like a no.

Bill Posey (R-Fla.) — Opposed.

Trey Radel (R-Fla.) — The Hill moved Radel from undecided to leaning no after a Sept. 4 interview on MSNBC.

Charles Rangel (D-N.Y.) — Reiterated his view that the military draft must be reinstated before an attack on Syria.

Tom Reed (R-N.Y.) — Had been undecided. Now leaning no, according to the Buffalo News. Reed cites feedback from constituents.

Jim Renacci (R-Ohio) — Opposed.

Reid Ribble (R-Wis.) — Leaning no.

Scott RigellEdward (Scott) Scott RigellGOP rushes to embrace Trump GOP lawmaker appears in Gary Johnson ad Some in GOP say Trump has gone too far MORE (R-Va.) — Leaning no.

Phil Roe (R-Tenn.) — Leaning no.

Dana Rohrabacher (R-Calif.) — Said U.S. shouldn't try to police Syria.

Tom Rooney (R-Fla.) — Unmoved by GOP leadership support, citing feedback from constituents. Rooney, a deputy whip, will vote no.

Dennis Ross (R-Fla.) — After attending Sunday's briefing, said in a statement he doesn't support military force at this time.

Jon Runyan (R-N.J.) — Appears to be leaning no.

Matt SalmonMatthew (Matt) James SalmonArizona voters like Kyl but few think he'll stick around Former Sen. Jon Kyl to replace McCain in Senate Arizona governor faces pressure over McCain replacement MORE (R-Ariz.) — Salmon expressed criticism of Syria intervention in a Sept. 4 interview with CNN.

Loretta Sanchez (D-Calif.) — "I’m leaning no. It’s about national security," she said in an interview on NBC's "Meet the Press."

Mark Sanford (R-S.C.) — Told WSAV-TV he is in the "no" column.

Kurt Schrader (D-Ore.) — Appears to be leaning no.

Austin Scott (R-Ga.) — Leaning no. Does not intend to vote for resolution unless he's convinced chemical weapons could be transferred from Syria to Hamas or could be used against Israel.

José Serrano (D-N.Y.) — “I cannot vote in favor of this authorization because I believe that the outcome of strikes on Syria is unpredictable, and unlikely to be in our nation’s interests,” he said in statement.

Carol Shea-Porter (D-N.H.) — "After attending classified and unclassified briefings on Syria and speaking with people across New Hampshire, at this point, I oppose the United States taking military action against the Assad regime in Syria," she said.

John Shimkus (R-Ill.) — Said "I am not convinced that a limited strike against Syria at this time is warranted." 

Chris Smith (R-N.J.) — Says he will vote no but will introduce legislation to create a Syria war crimes tribunal.

Jason Smith (R-Mo.) — "We should not put our men and women in uniform in harm's way without clear objectives and a sensible strategy." 

Lamar Smith (R-Texas) — Appears to be leaning no. At a town-hall meeting, his constituents were overwhelmingly against military intervention in Syria.

Steve Southerland (R-Fla.) — Says an overwhelming number of his constituents are opposed.

Glenn Thompson (R-Pa.) — Said he doesn't see a compelling case for strikes.

Paul Tonko (D-N.Y.) — Looks to be leaning no.

Michael Turner (R-Ohio) — Says he's a no until sequestration is lifted.

Fred Upton (R-Mich.) — The Energy and Commerce Committee chairman is leaning no.

Nydia Velázquez (D-N.Y.) — Opposed, according to NY1.

Ann Wagner (R-Mo.) — Sounds like a no vote.

Jackie Walorski (R-Ind.) — Cannot support the president "based on the current situation."

Randy WeberRandall (Randy) Keith WeberHouse passes bill expressing support for NATO Texas governor, top lawmakers tell Trump not to use hurricane relief funds to build border wall To protect the environment, Trump should investigate Russian collusion MORE (R-Texas) — Sounds like a no vote.

Daniel Webster (R-Fla.) — Will vote no, according to the Tampa Bay Times.

Lynn Westmoreland (R-Ga.) — Tweeted that he is a no.

Joe WilsonAddison (Joe) Graves WilsonPollster says younger lawmakers more likely to respond to State of the Union on social media The State of the Union is obsolete Dem leaders avert censure vote against Steve King MORE (R-S.C.) — Tells The Hill he will oppose authorization. "The case was not made," he said.

Ed WhitfieldWayne (Ed) Edward WhitfieldWhy Republicans took aim at an ethics watchdog What Azerbaijan wants from Israel? Overnight Energy: Green group sues Exxon over climate science MORE (R-Ky.) — “I will not support President Obama’s request to authorize missile strikes in Syria," he said in statement.

Roger WilliamsJohn (Roger) Roger WilliamsThe Hill's 12:30 Report: Dems aim to end anti-Semitism controversy with vote today CPAC attendees say Biden poses greatest threat to Trump Don’t look for House GOP to defy Trump on border wall MORE (R-Texas) — Leaning no.

Rob WittmanRobert (Rob) Joseph WittmanWhy block citizenship to immigrants who defend America? Virginia reps urge Trump to declare federal emergency ahead of Hurricane Florence Overnight Defense: House passes 5B defense spending bill | Pentagon moving forward on Trump military parade | Mattis vows 'ironclad' support for South Korea's defense MORE (R-Va.) — "Has grave concerns," according to The Free Lance-Star.

Frank WolfFrank Rudolph WolfDOJ opinion will help protect kids from dangers of online gambling Vulnerable Republican keeps focus as Democrats highlight Trump Bolton could be the first national security chief to prioritize religious freedom MORE (R-Va.) — Leaning no. In a letter to the president, Wolf states he has deep reservations about military intervention.

Rep. John Yarmuth (D-Ky.) — Said on MSNBC, “The military strike, I can’t support.”

Kevin YoderKevin Wayne YoderKansas Senate race splits wide open without Pompeo Mike Pompeo to speak at Missouri-Kansas Forum amid Senate bid speculation Yoder, Messer land on K Street MORE (R-Kan.) — Said on Facebook an attack is "not warranted at this time."

Ted YohoTheodore (Ted) Scott YohoSecrecy behind Saudi nuclear talks infuriates Congress Congress can finally ensure horses are not tortured for ribbons and prizes Trump's decision on health care law puts spotlight on Mulvaney MORE (R-Fla.) — Said on Twitter he planned to vote no and remains unconvinced.

Bill Young (R-Fla.) — Influential appropriator is a no.

Don YoungDonald (Don) Edwin YoungCongress: Pass legislation that invests in America's water future Bipartisan group introduces legislation to protect federal workers' health benefits during shutdowns Deceptions may sink plans to drill for oil in the Arctic Refuge MORE (R-Alaska) — Opposed.


UNDECIDED/NOT CLEAR

Senate (54) (29 Democrats, 23 Republicans, 2 Independents)

Tammy BaldwinTammy Suzanne BaldwinOnly four Dem senators have endorsed 2020 candidates Democratic proposals to overhaul health care: A 2020 primer More than 30 Senate Dems ask Trump to reconsider Central American aid cuts MORE (D-Wis.) 

Max BaucusMax Sieben BaucusOvernight Defense: McCain honored in Capitol ceremony | Mattis extends border deployment | Trump to embark on four-country trip after midterms Congress gives McCain the highest honor Judge boots Green Party from Montana ballot in boost to Tester MORE (D-Mont.) — Told The Hill, "I can't decide until I get my question answered." 

Mark BegichMark Peter BegichFormer GOP chairman Royce joins lobbying shop Lobbying world Dem governors on 2020: Opposing Trump not enough MORE (D-Alaska) — Begich is vulnerable in 2014. Says evidence of chemical weapons must be solid, response must be narrowly tailored and of short duration.

Michael BennetMichael Farrand BennetMichael Bennet declared cancer-free, paving way for possible 2020 run License to discriminate: Religious exemption laws are trampling rights in rural America Only four Dem senators have endorsed 2020 candidates MORE (D-Colo.) 

Richard Blumenthal (D-Conn.) 

Roy BluntRoy Dean BluntGOP senator: 'No problem' with Mueller testifying The Hill's Morning Report — Mueller aftermath: What will House Dems do now? Graham says he's 'not interested' in Mueller testifying MORE (R-Mo.) — "I have not made my mind up yet."

Sherrod BrownSherrod Campbell BrownOnly four Dem senators have endorsed 2020 candidates Budowsky: 2020 Dems should debate on Fox Overnight Health Care: How 2020 Dems want to overhaul health care | Brooklyn parents sue over measles vaccination mandate | Measles outbreak nears record MORE (D-Ohio) 

Maria CantwellMaria Elaine CantwellMore than 30 Senate Dems ask Trump to reconsider Central American aid cuts 737 crisis tests Boeing's clout in Washington State rules complicate push for federal data privacy law MORE (D-Wash.)

Jeffrey Chiesa (R-N.J.)

Dan CoatsDaniel (Dan) Ray CoatsJordan, Meadows press intelligence chief on House Intel Russia probe transcripts Overnight Energy: John Kerry hits Trump over climate change at hearing | Defends Ocasio-Cortez from GOP attacks | Dems grill EPA chief over auto emissions rollback plan Kerry goes after Trump over climate on Capitol Hill MORE (R-Ind.)

Tom CoburnThomas (Tom) Allen CoburnThe Hill's Morning Report — Presented by PhRMA — Worries grow about political violence as midterms approach President Trump’s war on federal waste American patients face too many hurdles in regard to health-care access MORE (R-Okla.)

Thad CochranWilliam (Thad) Thad CochranTop 5 races to watch in 2019 Bottom Line Races Dems narrowly lost show party needs to return to Howard Dean’s 50 state strategy MORE (R-Miss.)

Susan CollinsSusan Margaret CollinsSenate Republicans tested on Trump support after Mueller Collins: Mueller report includes 'an unflattering portrayal' of Trump GOP senator: 'No problem' with Mueller testifying MORE (R-Maine) — "Firmly undecided." 

John CornynJohn Cornyn Embattled senators fill coffers ahead of 2020 Trump struggles to reshape Fed Congress opens door to fraught immigration talks MORE (R-Texas) — The No. 2-ranking Senate Republican has called on Obama to address the nation on Syria.

Joe DonnellyJoseph (Joe) Simon DonnellySome in GOP fear Buttigieg run for governor Paul Ryan joins University of Notre Dame faculty GOP senator issues stark warning to Republicans on health care MORE (D-Ind.)

Mike EnziMichael (Mike) Bradley Enzi Embattled senators fill coffers ahead of 2020 The Hill's Morning Report - Trump cleaning house on border security Judd Gregg: In praise of Mike Enzi MORE (R-Wyo.) — Primary challenger Liz Cheney opposes action.

Deb FischerDebra (Deb) Strobel FischerWhy America needs the ability to track enemy missiles from space GOP senators divided on Trump trade pushback Dems accused of seeking revenge for 2013 vote on hurricane relief MORE (R-Neb.) 

Kirsten GillibrandKirsten Elizabeth GillibrandCory Booker has a problem in 2020: Kamala Harris Booker to supporter who wanted him to punch Trump: 'Black guys like us, we don't get away with that' 2020 Dems ratchet up anti-corporate talk in bid to woo unions MORE (D-N.Y.) 

Chuck GrassleyCharles (Chuck) Ernest GrassleyOn The Money: Inside the Mueller report | Cain undeterred in push for Fed seat | Analysis finds modest boost to economy from new NAFTA | White House says deal will give auto sector B boost The 7 most interesting nuggets from the Mueller report Government report says new NAFTA would have minimal impact on economy MORE (R-Iowa) — Said his constituents have expressed opposition.

Tom HarkinThomas (Tom) Richard HarkinStop asking parents to sacrifice Social Security benefits for paid family leave The FDA crackdown on dietary supplements is inadequate Wisconsin lawmaker refuses to cut hair until sign-language bill passes MORE (D-Iowa) — Has called evidence "circumstantial."

Orrin HatchOrrin Grant HatchHatch warns 'dangerous' idea of court packing could hurt religious liberty Former Democratic aide pleads guilty to doxing GOP senators attending Kavanaugh hearing How do we prevent viral live streaming of New Zealand-style violence? MORE (R-Utah)

Martin HeinrichMartin Trevor HeinrichNew Mexico senators request probe into militia group detaining migrants Lawmakers, tech set for clash over AI Why America needs the ability to track enemy missiles from space MORE (D-N.M.)

Dean HellerDean Arthur HellerTrump suggests Heller lost reelection bid because he was 'hostile' during 2016 presidential campaign Trump picks ex-oil lobbyist David Bernhardt for Interior secretary Oregon Dem top recipient of 2018 marijuana industry money, study finds MORE (R-Nev.)

Mazie HironoMazie Keiko HironoHillicon Valley: Washington preps for Mueller report | Barr to hold Thursday presser | Lawmakers dive into AI ethics | FCC chair moves to block China Mobile | Dem bill targets 'digital divide' | Microsoft denies request for facial recognition tech Dems introduce bill to tackle 'digital divide' Overnight Energy: Collins receives more donations from Texas oil, gas industry than from Maine residents | Interior chief left meetings off schedule | Omar controversy jeopardizes Ocasio-Cortez trip to coal mine MORE (D-Hawaii) 

Mike JohannsMichael (Mike) Owen JohannsMeet the Democratic sleeper candidate gunning for Senate in Nebraska Farmers, tax incentives can ease the pain of a smaller farm bill Lobbying World MORE (R-Neb.) — Spokesman tells The Hill he is still reviewing Senate resolution.

Tim JohnsonTimothy (Tim) Peter JohnsonSeveral hurt when truck runs into minimum wage protesters in Michigan Senate GOP rejects Trump’s call to go big on gun legislation Court ruling could be game changer for Dems in Nevada MORE (D-S.D.)

Angus KingAngus Stanley KingAngus King: 'Mueller passed the obstruction question to the Congress and Barr intercepted the pass' Hillicon Valley: Washington preps for Mueller report | Barr to hold Thursday presser | Lawmakers dive into AI ethics | FCC chair moves to block China Mobile | Dem bill targets 'digital divide' | Microsoft denies request for facial recognition tech Dems introduce bill to tackle 'digital divide' MORE (I-Maine)

Amy KlobucharAmy Jean KlobucharBooker to supporter who wanted him to punch Trump: 'Black guys like us, we don't get away with that' 2020 Dems ratchet up anti-corporate talk in bid to woo unions 2020 Democrats commemorate 20-year anniversary of Columbine shooting MORE (D-Minn.) 

Mary LandrieuMary Loretta LandrieuDems wrestle over how to vote on ‘Green New Deal’ Lobbying world Former New Orleans mayor: It's not my 'intention' to run for president MORE (D-La.) — GOP target in 2014.

Patrick LeahyPatrick Joseph LeahyDurbin calls Mueller report findings on Trump team 'troubling' 20 Dems demand no more money for ICE agents, Trump wall The Hill's 12:30 Report: Trump, Dems prep for Mueller report's release MORE (D-Vt.) — Judiciary Committee chairman voted against the war in Iraq. Opposed broad resolution submitted by the administration.

Ed MarkeyEdward (Ed) John MarkeyTlaib rallies in support of Green New Deal at Detroit town hall Ben & Jerry's backs Green New Deal: 'We have to act now' Warren praises Ocasio-Cortez in Time 100 MORE (D-Mass.) — Voted present on resolution in committee.

Claire McCaskillClaire Conner McCaskillBig Dem names show little interest in Senate Gillibrand, Grassley reintroduce campus sexual assault bill Endorsements? Biden can't count on a flood from the Senate MORE (D-Mo.) 

Mitch McConnellAddison (Mitch) Mitchell McConnellSenate Republicans tested on Trump support after Mueller Anti-smoking advocates question industry motives for backing higher purchasing age Former Bush assistant: Mueller report makes Obama look 'just plain bad' MORE (R-Ky.) — Wants more information on what needs to be done and what can be accomplished in Syria.

Jeff MerkleyJeffrey (Jeff) Alan MerkleyOnly four Dem senators have endorsed 2020 candidates More than 30 Senate Dems ask Trump to reconsider Central American aid cuts Long-shot goal of nixing Electoral College picks up steam MORE (D-Ore.)

Barbara MikulskiBarbara Ann MikulskiOnly four Dem senators have endorsed 2020 candidates Raskin embraces role as constitutional scholar Bottom Line MORE (D-Md.) — Appropriations Committee chairwoman says she's still examining whether to back military action. 

Lisa MurkowskiLisa Ann MurkowskiCain says he 'won't run away from criticism' in push for Fed seat Cain says he won't back down, wants to be nominated to Fed License to discriminate: Religious exemption laws are trampling rights in rural America MORE (R-Alaska)

Patty MurrayPatricia (Patty) Lynn MurrayHillicon Valley: Washington preps for Mueller report | Barr to hold Thursday presser | Lawmakers dive into AI ethics | FCC chair moves to block China Mobile | Dem bill targets 'digital divide' | Microsoft denies request for facial recognition tech Dems introduce bill to tackle 'digital divide' Only four Dem senators have endorsed 2020 candidates MORE (D-Wash.)

Rob PortmanRobert (Rob) Jones PortmanSenate Republicans tested on Trump support after Mueller GOP senator wears shirt honoring Otto Warmbier at Korean DMZ On The Money: Conservatives rally behind Moore for Fed | White House interviewing other candidates | Trump, Dems spar on Tax Day | Budget watchdogs bemoan 'debt denialism' MORE (R-Ohio) 

Jack ReedJohn (Jack) Francis Reed Embattled senators fill coffers ahead of 2020 Senators show deep skepticism on Space Force proposal Barr says 'spying' took place on Trump campaign MORE (D-R.I.)

Jay RockefellerJohn (Jay) Davison RockefellerWorld Health Day: It's time to fight preventable disease Lobbying World Senate GOP rejects Trump’s call to go big on gun legislation MORE (D-W.Va.) 

Bernie SandersBernard (Bernie) SandersCory Booker has a problem in 2020: Kamala Harris Wage growth shaping up as key 2020 factor for Trump Booker to supporter who wanted him to punch Trump: 'Black guys like us, we don't get away with that' MORE (I-Vt.)

Tim ScottTimothy (Tim) Eugene ScottGOP senators dismiss Booker reparations proposal On The Money — Presented by Job Creators Network — GOP senators urge Trump not to nominate Cain | Treasury expected to miss Dem deadline on Trump tax returns | Party divisions force Dems to scrap budget vote | House passes IRS reform bill GOP senators urge Trump not to pick Cain for Fed MORE (R-S.C.) — Scott said he was undecided as he entered a Sept. 5 briefing on Syria.

Jeff SessionsJefferson (Jeff) Beauregard SessionsThe Memo: Mueller's depictions will fuel Trump angst Collins: Mueller report includes 'an unflattering portrayal' of Trump Trump frustrated with aides who talked to Mueller MORE (R-Ala.) — Is concerned there isn't clarity about what the administration want to accomplish.

Richard Shelby (R-Ala.)

Jon TesterJonathan (Jon) Tester20 Dems demand no more money for ICE agents, Trump wall Overnight Energy: Bipartisan Senate group seeks more funding for carbon capture technology | Dems want documents on Interior pick's lobbying work | Officials push to produce more electric vehicle batteries in US Bipartisan senators want 'highest possible' funding for carbon capture technology MORE (D-Mont.)

John ThuneJohn Randolph ThuneTelehealth is calling — will Congress pick up? GOP grows tired of being blindsided by Trump Hillicon Valley: Assange faces US charges after arrest | Trump says WikiLeaks 'not my thing' | Uber officially files to go public | Bezos challenges retail rivals on wages | Kremlin tightens its control over internet MORE (R-S.D.)

Pat Toomey (R-Pa.) — Has said he supports military action.

Mark UdallMark Emery UdallDenver Post editorial board says Gardner endorsement was 'mistake' Gardner gets latest Democratic challenge from former state senator Setting the record straight about No Labels MORE (D-Colo.)

Mark WarnerMark Robert WarnerDems reject Barr's offer to view Mueller report with fewer redactions GOP senators divided on Trump trade pushback Hillicon Valley: Trump unveils initiatives to boost 5G | What to know about the Assange case | Pelosi warns tech of 'new era' in regulation | Dem eyes online hate speech bill MORE (D-Va.) 

Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.) — Has declined to say how she would vote.

Sheldon WhitehouseSheldon WhitehouseHillicon Valley: Washington preps for Mueller report | Barr to hold Thursday presser | Lawmakers dive into AI ethics | FCC chair moves to block China Mobile | Dem bill targets 'digital divide' | Microsoft denies request for facial recognition tech Dems introduce bill to tackle 'digital divide' Senators press drug industry 'middlemen' over high prices MORE (D-R.I.)

Roger WickerRoger Frederick WickerWe can accelerate a cure for Alzheimer's Senate panel opens investigation of FAA safety inspectors FAA faces questions about Boeing at two hearings MORE (R-Miss.) — "I'm skeptical but undecided."

Ron WydenRonald (Ron) Lee WydenOn The Money: Inside the Mueller report | Cain undeterred in push for Fed seat | Analysis finds modest boost to economy from new NAFTA | White House says deal will give auto sector B boost Government report says new NAFTA would have minimal impact on economy Hillicon Valley: Washington preps for Mueller report | Barr to hold Thursday presser | Lawmakers dive into AI ethics | FCC chair moves to block China Mobile | Dem bill targets 'digital divide' | Microsoft denies request for facial recognition tech MORE (D-Ore.) — Says intelligence clear Assad used chemical weapons but unsure about military action. 


UNDECIDED/NOT CLEAR

House (92) (71 Democrats, 21 Republicans)

Robert Andrews (D-N.J.)

Ron BarberRonald (Ron) Sylvester BarberKavanaugh nomination a make or break moment to repeal Citizens United Latina Leaders to Watch 2018 Principles and actions mean more than Jeff Flake’s words MORE (D-Ariz.)

John BarrowJohn Jenkins BarrowRepublican wins Georgia secretary of state runoff to replace Kemp The most important runoff election is one you probably never heard of Our democracy can’t afford to cut legal aid services from the budget MORE (D-Ga.)

Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-Texas) — Has not come to an option on the issue.

Tim BishopTimothy (Tim) Howard BishopDem candidate 'struck by the parallels' between Trump's rise and Hitler's Dems separated by 29 votes in NY House primary Flint residents hire first K Street firm MORE (D-N.Y.)

Suzanne BonamiciSuzanne Marie BonamiciDeVos defends controversial guidance on transgender students Overnight Energy: Ocasio-Cortez rolls out Green New Deal measure | Pelosi taps members for climate panel | AOC left out | Court reviews order for EPA to ban pesticide Ocasio-Cortez: ‘I truly do not’ believe Pelosi snubbed me on climate change panel MORE (D-Ore.)

Bruce BraleyBruce Lowell BraleyOPINION | Tax reform, not Trump-McConnell feuds, will make 2018 a win for GOP Ten years later, House Dems reunite and look forward Trump: Ernst wanted 'more seasoning' before entertaining VP offer MORE (D-Iowa) — Told ABC5 News: "I'm waiting for the president to make the case on the possible use of force and the aftermath."

Jim BridenstineJames (Jim) Frederick BridenstineThis is not the time to abandon NASA's Space Launch System Can America return to the moon by 2024? Why NASA announced and then canceled an all-woman spacewalk MORE (R-Okla.) — Iraq and Afghanistan veteran said questions remain about strategic objectives and U.S. security.

Mo BrooksMorris (Mo) Jackson BrooksGOP leaders dead set against Roy Moore in Alabama Poll: Roy Moore leading Alabama GOP field Alabama Holocaust Commission condemns GOP lawmaker's use of Hitler phrase 'big lie' MORE (R-Ala.)

Cheri BustosCheryl (Cheri) Lea Bustos2020 is the Democrats' to lose — and they very well may DCCC opens Texas office to protect House pickups, target vulnerable GOP seats Speaker in waiting? Rapid rise of Hakeem Jeffries fuels talk MORE (D-Ill.) — In statement, says many questions remain before action can be determined.

Ken Calvert (R-Calif.)

Lois Capps (D-Calif.)

Matt Cartwright (D-Pa.) — Says he will not make final decision until final classified briefing on Monday. 

Bill Cassidy (R-La.) — Senate candidate

Steve Chabot (R-Ohio)

Judy Chu (D-Calif.) — Asking for constituent input.

David Cicilline (D-R.I.) — Said on MSNBC he is "skeptical."

James Clyburn (D-S.C.) — No.3-ranking House Democrat: "Issues of war and peace require thoughtful consideration. I reserve judgment on Syria until a resolution and more details are forthcoming."

Steve Cohen (D-Tenn.) — Undecided and waiting for more information, according to his office.

Jim Cooper (D-Tenn.) — Has not made up his mind but told WKRN-TV he is "extremely leery."

Elijah Cummings (D-Md.) — In a round of cable interviews, says he's torn between president and constituents opposed to a strike. 

Steve Daines (R-Mont.) — In statement, says he won't back strike unless he's convinced national security is at risk and president's strategy will successfully secure interests. Will closely scrutinize intelligence.

Rosa DeLauro (D-Conn.)

Suzan DelBeneSuzan Kay DelBeneNewDems put ideas over politics at 'NEXT' — a policy conference Koch-backed group pushes for new limits on Trump's tariff authority Lobbying world MORE (D-Wash.)

Mario Diaz-Balart (R-Fla.)

William Enyart (D-Ill.)

Anna Eshoo (D-Calif.) — Close friend of Pelosi's. Deemed "dubious" by local media outlet.

Elizabeth Esty (D-Conn.)

Chaka Fattah (D-Pa.)

Lois FrankelLois Jane FrankelDemocrats put harassment allegations against Trump on back burner GOP on defensive over Dem votes on policies geared toward women Endorsements? Biden can't count on a flood from the Senate MORE (D-Fla.)

Marcia FudgeMarcia Louise FudgeDems rally behind Omar as Trump escalates attacks Congressional Black Caucus faces tough decision on Harris, Booker Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee to step down as CBC Foundation chair amid lawsuit MORE (D-Ohio) — Chairwoman of the Congressional Black Caucus is undecided.

Joe GarciaJose (Joe) Antonio GarciaOvernight Defense: Biden honors McCain at Phoenix memorial service | US considers sending captured ISIS fighters to Gitmo and Iraq | Senators press Trump on ending Yemen civil war Biden pays tribute to McCain at emotional memorial service Mueller indictments: Congressional candidate asked Russian operatives for info on opponent MORE (D-Fla.)

Bob GoodlatteRobert (Bob) William GoodlatteTop Republican releases full transcript of Bruce Ohr interview It’s time for Congress to pass an anti-cruelty statute DOJ opinion will help protect kids from dangers of online gambling MORE (R-Va.) — Judiciary panel chairman has been meeting with constituents on Syria. 

Jim Himes (D-Conn.)

Rush Holt (D-N.J.)

Sheila Jackson LeeSheila Jackson LeeGiuliani: Trump lawyers saw Mueller report Tuesday as they prepared rebuttal Dems attack Barr's credibility after report of White House briefings on Mueller findings O'Rourke sweeps through Virginia looking to energize campaign MORE (D-Texas) — Believes that the international community must take some type of action against Syria. Her statement indicates she's more likely a yes than a no.

Hakeem Jeffries (D-N.Y.) — Said a significant number of constituents oppose a strike, but he wants to support Obama. Wants president to engage more. 

Bill Johnson (R-Ohio)

Joseph Kennedy (D-Mass.)

Dan Kildee (D-Mich.)

Ann KirkpatrickAnn KirkpatrickDemocrats introduce bill to let 'Dreamers' work for Congress Push for ‘Medicare for all’ worries centrist Dems GOP compares Ocasio-Cortez to Trump MORE (D-Ariz.)

Jim Langevin (D-R.I.) — Spokesman says congressman willing to consider limited strike, but doesn't support it yet and will decide based on intelligence and constituent input.

John Larson (D-Conn.) — Close Pelosi ally is undecided.

John Lewis (D-Ga.) — His office said he is undecided.

David Loebsack (D-Iowa) — Told local outlet, "we must exercise extreme caution."

Zoe Lofgren (D-Calif.)

Nita Lowey (D-N.Y.) — Close ally of Pelosi is undecided.

Michelle Lujan Grisham (D-N.M.) 

Dan Maffei (D-N.Y.)

Sean Maloney (D-N.Y.)

Kevin McCarthy (R-Calif.) — A spokesman for the House majority whip said McCarthy is weighing “the information and intelligence presented to him by the president and his national security team.”

Betty McCollum (D-Minn.)

Buck McKeon (R-Calif.) — Armed Services panel chairman is undecided.

Cathy McMorris RodgersCathy McMorris RodgersWe can accelerate a cure for Alzheimer's Overnight Energy: Wheeler vows to keep funds for Great Lakes cleanup | Inslee presses Trump on climate in House testimony | Dems seek more funds for Interior watchdog Inslee presses Trump on climate change in House testimony MORE (R-Wash.) — The fourth-ranked GOP leader says she is skeptical.

Gregory Meeks (D-N.Y.) — Says he's still studying the issue.

George Miller (D-Calif.) — A Pelosi ally.

Gwen MooreGwen Sophia MooreEx-White House ethics chief compares Ivanka, Kushner security clearances to college admissions scandal Dem compares college cheating scandal to Ivanka, Jared's security clearance Dem lawmakers unveil Journalist Protection Act amid Trump attacks on media MORE (D-Wis.) 

Shelley Moore CapitoShelley Wellons Moore Capito20 Dems demand no more money for ICE agents, Trump wall We can accelerate a cure for Alzheimer's Gillibrand, Grassley reintroduce campus sexual assault bill MORE (R-W.Va.) — Running for the Senate.

Patrick Murphy (D-Fla.)

Richard Neal (D-Mass.) — Noted in his statement that he voted against the Iraq War.

Gloria Negrete McLeod (D-Calif.)

Bill Owens (D-N.Y.) — Wants details on what the mission will be.

Frank Pallone Jr. (D-N.J.)

Donald Payne Jr. (D-N.J.)

Ed Perlmutter (D-Colo.) — Undecided, according to his communications director.

Scott Perry (R-Pa.) — Undecided but not inclined to back a resolution authorizing action.

Gary Peters (D-Mich.) — The Senate candidate said in a statement that he'll review intelligence, speak with experts and listen to his constituents over the next few days before making a decision.

Scott Peters (D-Calif.) — In statement on website, says he's undecided. 

Joe Pitts (R-Pa.)

Mike Quigley (D-Ill.)

Martha RobyMartha Dubina RobyOcasio-Cortez: 'I was stopped because it was assumed I was an intern' Insurgency shakes up Democratic establishment Dem House candidate claims Russians tried to hack campaign website MORE (R-Ala.)

Raul Ruiz (D-Calif.)

Bobby Rush (D-Ill.) 

Paul RyanPaul Davis RyanAppeals court rules House chaplain can reject secular prayers FEC filing: No individuals donated to indicted GOP rep this cycle The Hill's Morning Report - Waiting on Mueller: Answers come on Thursday MORE (R-Wis.) — "The president has some work to do to recover from his grave missteps in Syria. He needs to clearly demonstrate that the use of military force would strengthen America's security."

Tim Ryan (D-Ohio)

Brad Schneider (D-Ill.) — Undecided, but says red lines "matter" and the U.S. must act "if necessary, alone, to respond appropriately." Says he will continue to review administration's strategy.

Adam SchiffAdam Bennett SchiffSchiff rips Conway's 'display of alternative facts' on Russian election interference Schiff: Mueller report 'far worse' than Watergate Schiff: Democrats 'may' take up impeachment proceedings MORE (D-Calif.)

Bobby ScottRobert (Bobby) Cortez ScottLabor Department official steps down amid ethics questions: report The Congressional Black Caucus: America stands to lose a lot under TrumpCare House passes Paycheck Fairness Act MORE (D-Va.) — Expressed concern about precedent the U.S. would be setting by approving an attack.

Terri SewellTerrycina (Terri) Andrea SewellHouse Dem calls on lawmakers to 'insulate' election process following Mueller report Dems counter portrait of discord Congress should look into its own taxes and travel, not just Trump's MORE (D-Ala.)

Kyrsten Sinema (D-Ariz.) — " I haven't gotten all the information I feel I need to make an informed decision."

Louise Slaughter (D-N.Y.) — Has many questions for the administration.

Jackie Speier (D-Calif.)

Steve Stivers (R-Ohio) — The Iraq war vet is undecided.

Chris StewartChristopher (Chris) Douglas StewartBarr testimony opens new partisan fight over FBI spying on Trump Hill-HarrisX poll: 76 percent oppose Trump pardoning former campaign aides Dems fear Trump is looking at presidential pardons MORE (R-Utah)

Mark Takano (D-Calif.)

Bennie Thompson (D-Miss.)

Mike Thompson (D-Calif.)

John Tierney (D-Mass.) — In statement, says he will consider potential costs, duration and ramifications before making decision.

David Valadao (R-Calif.)

Tim Walz (D-Minn.) — His constituents are strongly opposed. 

Peter WelchPeter Francis WelchBooker takes early lead in 2020 endorsements Divisions emerge over House drug price bills Trump CFO Weisselberg emerges as key person of interest for Dems MORE (D-Vt.) 

Brad Wenstrup (R-Ohio) — Said "In the coming days I will be listening to my constituents' concerns."

Please send any updates to Bob Cusack at bcusack@thehill.com.

Russell Berman, Haley Bissegger, Kevin Bogardus, Alexander Bolton, Bob Cusack, Jonathan Easley, Ben Geman, Jeremy Herb, Molly K. Hooper, Alexandra Jaffe, Pete Kasperowicz, Keith Laing, Mike Lillis, Patrick Mortiere, Carlo Munoz, Vicki Needham, Blake Neff, Julian Notaro, Julian Pecquet, Rebecca Shabad, Ian Swanson, Mario Trujillo and Erik Wasson contributed.