Five things to know about Tuesday's impeachment hearings

House investigators heard Tuesday from four senior national security officials with direct knowledge of President TrumpDonald John TrumpNational Archives says it altered Trump signs, other messages in Women's March photo Dems plan marathon prep for Senate trial, wary of Trump trying to 'game' the process Democratic lawmaker dismisses GOP lawsuit threat: 'Take your letter and shove it' MORE’s interactions with Ukraine, marking a long day of marathon hearings on Capitol Hill as Democrats press their case for impeachment with the TV-viewing public. 

All four witnesses had testified previously, leaving few lingering questions about their role in the affair or their assessment of Trump’s handling of foreign policy in Kyiv. But the public forum allowed for an amplification of those messages, as both parties fight to pull voter sentiment to their side. 

Two witnesses — Lt. Col. Alexander VindmanAlexander VindmanPresident Trump's intelligence community security blanket Whistleblower's lawyer questions GOP senator's whistleblower protection caucus membership White House limits number of officials allowed to listen to Trump calls with foreign leaders: report MORE, a Ukraine specialist on the National Security Council (NSC), and Jennifer Williams, a top national security aide to Vice President Pence — both testified that Trump’s July 25 phone call with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky was irregular and inappropriate, lending support to Democratic allegations that Trump abused his office for political gain. 


Two others — Kurt VolkerKurt VolkerGOP chairmen seek interview with Obama officials as part of Biden-Ukraine probe Push to investigate Bidens sets up potential for Senate turf war Senate confirms Brouillette to replace Perry as Energy secretary MORE, former special envoy to Kyiv, and Tim Morrison, another top NSC aide, who were both called by Republicans — stopped short of accusing Trump of wrongdoing, but raised concerns about Trump’s shadow policy in Ukraine, led by Rudy GiulianiRudy GiulianiDems plan marathon prep for Senate trial, wary of Trump trying to 'game' the process House Democrats release second batch of Parnas materials Republicans will pay on Election Day for politicizing Trump's impeachment MORE, Trump’s personal lawyer, which undermined U.S. interests.

Here are five things to know about a lengthy day of testimony. 


Eyewitnesses testify for first time

For weeks, Trump’s Republican allies have dismissed many of the witnesses’ testimonies as “hearsay,” portraying the figures as too far removed to know anything concrete about Trump’s intentions.

That changed on Tuesday, as three of the four officials appearing before the House Intelligence Committee had listened in directly to the July 25 phone call between Trump and Zelensky. Two of them relayed concerns about the propriety of Trump’s message to his Ukrainian counterpart. 

“I was concerned by the call. What I heard was improper, and I reported my concerns to [NSC lawyer John] Eisenberg,” Vindman said. “It is improper for the president of the United States to demand a foreign government investigate a U.S. citizen and political opponent.”


On the July 25 call, Trump had requested “a favor” from Zelensky, a reference to a pair of investigations Trump was pushing the Ukrainians to open: one into the 2016 elections and another into the son of former Vice President Joe BidenJoe BidenSanders to headline Iowa event amid impeachment trial Hillicon Valley: Biden calls for revoking tech legal shield | DHS chief 'fully expects' Russia to try to interfere in 2020 | Smaller companies testify against Big Tech 'monopoly power' Hill.TV's Krystal Ball on Sanders-Warren feud: 'Don't play to the pundits, play to voters' MORE, a leading 2020 presidential contender. 

The call came shortly after the White House had frozen almost $400 million in military aid to Ukraine, and Vindman has said he had “no doubt” the release of those funds hinged on Kyiv’s willingness to launch the investigations Trump sought. 

Williams testified that Trump’s message on the call was “unusual,” because “it involved discussion of what appeared to be a domestic political matter.”

Asked if there was any disagreement in the national security community about the importance of the funds to support Ukraine’s defense against an aggressive Russia, she was terse.

“No,” she said. 


Volker, Morrison raise stakes for Sondland

Volker testified that Gordon SondlandGordon SondlandFive takeaways from Parnas's Maddow interview Giuliani pushes to join Trump impeachment defense team: report Pompeo to visit Ukraine amid impeachment drama MORE, Trump’s ambassador to the European Union, spoke of “investigations” during a July 10 meeting between U.S. and Ukrainian officials at the White House, confirming the testimony of others including Vindman and Fiona Hill, Trump’s former top Russia expert.

That was a break from Volker’s Oct. 3 closed-door deposition where he replied “no” when asked whether anything about the two investigations was raised at that July meeting.

This raises the stakes for Sondland, who privately testified that he didn’t recall much from the July 10 meeting, let alone if he pressed the Ukrainians about Trump’s “investigations.”

Morrison’s testimony added to the pressure on Sondland, who he said told a top Ukrainian official on Sept. 1 that the release of the military aid hinged on Kyiv opening the investigations Trump sought. Morrison also said Sondland was taking his orders directly from Trump.

“That’s what he represented,” Morrison said.


GOP attacks the media 


Facing witnesses with years of military and national security experience, Rep. Devin NunesDevin Gerald NunesDemocratic lawmaker dismisses GOP lawsuit threat: 'Take your letter and shove it' House Democrats release second batch of Parnas materials Democratic lawmaker says Nunes threatened to sue him over criticism MORE (Calif.), the top Intelligence Committee Republican, turned to a favorite GOP punching bag: the media.

The California Republican, a close Trump ally, accused the media of being “puppets of the Democratic Party” who want to “tarnish and remove” the president from office. Nunes cited stories by CNN, The New York Times, BuzzFeed, Slate, New York Magazine and The Guardian.  

“What you read in the press were accounts of shocking, damning and explosive testimony that fully supports the Democrats’ accusations. If these accounts have a familiar ring, that’s because this is their same preposterous reporting the media offered for three years on the Russian hoax,” Nunes said. 

“On a nearly daily basis, the top news outlets in America reported breathlessly on the newest bombshell revelations showing that President Trump and everyone surrounding him were Russian agents.”

In the eyes of Nunes and other Trump allies, there is one journalist who has been a truth-teller: John Solomon, a former opinion columnist for The Hill who wrote about a debunked theory that Ukraine, not Russia, interfered in the 2016 election to hurt Trump. 

His columns are now under review by The Hill, a development that has irked Republicans.

“Now that Solomon’s reporting is a problem for the Democrats,” Nunes said, “it’s a problem for the media as well.”



Two sides fight over ‘bribery’

Democrats have dropped references to a “quid pro quo” in favor of allegations of “bribery,” a term adopted by Speaker Nancy PelosiNancy PelosiRepublicans will pay on Election Day for politicizing Trump's impeachment Trump chooses high-profile but controversial legal team Trump: Impeachment timing intended to hurt Sanders MORE (D-Calif.) last week — and one cited explicitly in the Constitution’s impeachment clause. 

That shift was not overlooked by Republicans, and it sparked one of the most notable exchanges Tuesday.

Rep. John RatcliffeJohn Lee RatcliffeTrump's legal team gets set for impeachment trial Five lingering questions as impeachment heads to Senate Graham: Not 'wise' for House Republicans to serve on Trump trial team MORE (R-Texas) was quick to point out that neither Vindman nor Williams had characterized Trump’s appeal to Zelensky for investigations as “bribery,” and both agreed they did not. 

“The problem is, in an impeachment inquiry that the Speaker of the House says is all about bribery or where bribery is the impeachable offense, no witness has used the word ‘bribery’ to describe President Trump’s conduct. None of them,” Ratcliffe said.

“The word ‘bribery’ appears in these 3,500 pages [of deposition transcripts] exactly one time, and ironically, it appears not in a description of President Trump’s alleged conduct, it appears in a description of Vice President Biden’s alleged conduct,” he added.


Ratcliffe’s line of questioning drew a response from Rep. Adam SchiffAdam Bennett SchiffDems plan marathon prep for Senate trial, wary of Trump trying to 'game' the process The Hill's Morning Report — President Trump on trial GOP threatens to weaponize impeachment witnesses amid standoff MORE (D-Calif.), the chairman of the Intelligence Committee, who warned the witnesses against making any legal determinations surrounding Trump’s behavior.

“The reason we don’t ask witnesses that are fact witnesses to make the judgment about whether a crime of bribery has been committed — or rather, more significantly, what the Founders had in mind when they itemized bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors — is you are fact witnesses,” Schiff said. “It will be our job to decide whether the impeachable act of bribery has occurred.”


GOP tries to out whistleblower

Republicans have accused the anonymous whistleblower of being a partisan who filed a complaint to destroy Trump. It’s why they’ve pushed to have the whistleblower step forward and testify in public. On Tuesday, they tried to get Vindman to name the whistleblower, who is a member of the intelligence community who had been detailed to the White House.

Nunes pressed Vindman to identify the two individuals with whom he spoke about serious concerns he had about the July 25 Trump-Zelensky phone call.

One was George Kent, the deputy assistant secretary of State who has Ukraine in his portfolio, Vindman said. The second was a member of the intelligence community, Vindman said, prompting Nunes to ask what specific agency the individual worked for.

Schiff quickly intervened: “If I could interject here.”

“It’s our time,” Nunes argued.  

“But we need to protect the whistleblower,” Schiff replied. “I want to make sure there is no effort to out the whistleblower throughout these proceedings.”