House passes $1 trillion infrastructure bill, advances social spending plan

House Democrats late Friday night clinched a long-sought victory on President BidenJoe BidenMarcus Garvey's descendants call for Biden to pardon civil rights leader posthumously GOP grapples with chaotic Senate primary in Pennsylvania ​​Trump social media startup receives commitment of billion from unidentified 'diverse group' of investors MORE’s domestic agenda, passing a $1.2 trillion bipartisan infrastructure bill — while advancing an even larger social spending package — after months of stubborn infighting that’s bedeviled the party and helped deflate Biden’s public standing.

The back-to-back votes came after progressives caved on a key demand they’d maintained for months: their insistence that the climate and social spending package be passed on the same day as the more popular infrastructure proposal. 

On Friday they shed that stipulation, threw their weight behind the public works bill — which had already passed the Senate — and helped send it along to Biden’s desk. They ultimately agreed to a procedural vote on the social spending bill, short of full passage.


The tally on the infrastructure bill was 228-206, with 13 Republicans crossing the aisle to support the measure, and six progressive Democrats bucking Biden and party leaders to register their opposition to a process that left the fate of the larger bill up in the air.    

The House then adopted a procedural rule establishing floor debate parameters for the $1.75 trillion social spending package along party lines, 221-213. 

Biden praised the House action on both measures, calling passage of the bipartisan infrastructure bill "a monumental step forward" and emphasized that he looked forward to "signing both of these bills into law."

During a speech at the White House on Saturday morning, Biden said passage of the infrastructure bill was "long overdue" and he would sign it "soon." He said he would wait at least until after the weekend to enact it, to allow key lawmakers who helped get it over the finish line to attend a signing ceremony.

“We did something that’s long overdue, that long has been talked about in Washington but never actually been done,” Biden said, casting the bill as a transformative measure that will reshape the U.S. transportation system and create jobs.

The president also sought to project confidence on the path forward for the larger spending package.


“Let me be clear: We will pass this in the House, and we will pass it in the Senate," Biden said, insisting the bill will be be “fully paid for” and “ease inflationary pressures.”

Getting the infrastructure bill passed in the House required a long day of tense negotiations on Friday, marathon meetings and general chaos that eroded only after the feuding factions — liberals and moderates — huddled in a late-night meeting to hash out a written agreement that broke the progressive blockade on the infrastructure bill. 

“The whole day was a clusterf---, right? But beyond that, you know … I thought everyone was working in a very congenial way,” one of the Congressional Progressive Caucus leaders, Rep. Mark PocanMark William PocanDemocrats livid over GOP's COVID-19 attacks on Biden With Build Back Better, Dems aim to correct messaging missteps Dems brace for score on massive Biden bill MORE (D-Wis.), said after a fruitful closed-door meeting with moderate negotiators. 

“I mean, rank-and-file members figured out how to get shit done."

The result of those talks was a written commitment from five moderate Democrats — Reps. Josh GottheimerJoshua (Josh) GottheimerFive takeaways: House passes Biden's sweeping benefits bill Dems brace for score on massive Biden bill Democrats bullish they'll reach finish line this week MORE (N.J.), Ed CaseEdward (Ed) CaseMORE (Hawaii), Stephanie MurphyStephanie MurphyFlorida Republicans debate how far to push congressional remap Five takeaways: House passes Biden's sweeping benefits bill Overnight Energy & Environment — House passes giant climate, social policy bill MORE (Fla.), Kathleen RiceKathleen Maura RiceFive takeaways: House passes Biden's sweeping benefits bill Dems brace for score on massive Biden bill Democrats bullish they'll reach finish line this week MORE (N.Y.) and Kurt SchraderWalter (Kurt) Kurt SchraderFive takeaways: House passes Biden's sweeping benefits bill House passes giant social policy and climate measure Democrats press toward vote on massive Biden bill MORE (Ore.) — to support the social spending package if the yet-to-be released cost estimate from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) is consistent with a White House analysis, no later than the week of Nov. 15. 

If the two tallies don’t mesh, the moderates said they "remain committed to working to resolve any discrepancies in order to pass the Build Back Better legislation." 

The Congressional Progressive Caucus leader, Rep. Pramila JayapalPramila JayapalDemocratic caucus chairs call for Boebert committee assignment removal Five reasons for Biden, GOP to be thankful this season 91 House Dems call on Senate to expand immigration protections in Biden spending bill MORE (D-Wash.), issued a statement in turn affirming that her members would back the two measures on Friday.

The relative dearth of Republicans backing the public works bill meant that Democratic leaders couldn’t rely on the other party to make up for significant defections among progressives. By contrast, 19 Republicans backed the measure in the Senate, including Minority Leader Mitch McConnellAddison (Mitch) Mitchell McConnellDemocrats livid over GOP's COVID-19 attacks on Biden US could default within weeks absent action on debt limit: analysis The Hill's Morning Report - Presented by Facebook - Congress avoids shutdown MORE (Ky.).

Heading into the day, Speaker Nancy PelosiNancy PelosiPhotos of the Week: Schumer, ASU protest and sea turtles Hospitals in underserved communities face huge cuts in reckless 'Build Back Better' plan GOP infighting takes stupid to a whole new level MORE (D-Calif.) and Democratic leaders had hoped to vote quickly not only on the infrastructure proposal, but also the Build Back Better Act. That plan hit a brick wall when a band of moderate Democrats raised concerns about deficit spending and balked at the idea of voting on the larger bill without a score from the CBO. 

A morning meeting between Pelosi, White House officials and the moderate holdouts yielded no breakthrough. The Speaker then tried a different tactic — devised by Whip James Clyburn (D-S.C.) and Black Caucus Chairwoman Joyce BeattyJoyce Birdson BeattyDemocratic caucus chairs call for Boebert committee assignment removal Warnock: 'True justice' is a Black man not having to worry about being killed while jogging Biden: Guilty verdicts in Arbery case 'not enough' MORE (D-Ohio) — calling a vote on the infrastructure bill and the rule for the social spending package, and daring liberals to tank the roads-and-bridges bill.

The detente came after Biden himself called into an hours-long meeting of House progressives, desperately seeking a way to break the ugly, intraparty stalemate and urging rank-and-file lawmakers to deliver a win on the infrastructure bill Friday night. 

Biden was put on speakerphone so the dozens of progressives in the room could hear, sources said. One of the ideas discussed during the 15-minute call with Biden was the moderates’ statement, one that would also have Biden’s full-throated support.  


But the fate of the social spending package is still far from sealed. 

Numerous provisions currently in the House bill are likely to be stripped out or amended once it reaches the Senate. 

It’s not yet clear if provisions establishing temporary work permits and protection from deportation for certain immigrants will pass muster with the Senate parliamentarian, who determines whether the bill complies with arcane budget reconciliation rules that will enable Democrats to circumvent a GOP filibuster.

Before Friday’s fight over procedure and process, House Democratic leaders ironed out some final policy provisions late Thursday related to allowing Medicare to negotiate the price of certain prescription drugs and the state and local tax deduction. 

The House measure would raise the cap on the state and local tax deduction from $10,000 to $80,000, and to have that limit be in place at that level through 2030. But some senators have instead called for leaving the cap at $10,000 while exempting taxpayers with incomes under a level between $400,000 and $550,000.

Sen. Joe ManchinJoe ManchinIRS data proves Trump tax cuts benefited middle, working-class Americans most Overnight Energy & Environment — Presented by ExxonMobil — Dems press drillers over methane leaks Overnight Health Care — Presented by March of Dimes — Abortion access for 65M women at stake MORE (D-W.Va.), a key centrist, has also expressed opposition to including paid family and medical leave in the social spending package.


Friday’s votes marked the most significant progress House Democrats have made in almost two months on the two bills, which they’ve been trying to advance since late September. 

Democratic leaders have repeatedly pushed for votes on the two measures, only to be forced to delay again and again due to stubborn internal divisions.

But Democrats became desperate to make progress this week after election results in Virginia and New Jersey on Tuesday night delivered flashing red warning signs for prospects in next year’s midterm elections. 

Democrats lost the Virginia governor’s race for the first time since 2009, while New Jersey Gov. Phil MurphyPhil MurphySununu setback leaves GOP scrambling in New Hampshire House Democrats planning 1,000 events to tout accomplishments Ciattarelli formally concedes in New Jersey to Phil Murphy MORE only narrowly won reelection — both in states that Biden easily won a year ago.

“At a certain point, we have to trust one another,” said Rep. Peter WelchPeter Francis WelchThe Hill's Morning Report - Ins and outs: Powell renominated at Fed, Parnell drops Senate bid Welch to seek Senate seat in Vermont The Hill's Morning Report - Presented by ExxonMobil - Biden hails infrastructure law, talks with China's Xi MORE (D-Vt.).

— Morgan Chalfant contributed

Updated: Nov. 6 at 1:15 p.m.