Former Director of National Intelligence James ClapperJames Robert ClapperAfghanistan disaster puts intelligence under scrutiny Domestic security is in disarray: We need a manager, now more than ever Will Biden provide strategic clarity or further ambiguity on Taiwan? MORE writes in his new book that he has "no doubt" Russians swung the 2016 presidential election to President TrumpDonald TrumpJan. 6 committee chair says panel will issue a 'good number' of additional subpoenas Overnight Defense & National Security — Presented by AM General — Pentagon officials prepare for grilling Biden nominates head of Africa CDC to lead global AIDS response MORE.
MSNBC host Rachel Maddow read an excerpt from Clapper's new book, "Facts and Fears: Hard Truths from a Life in Intelligence," during her Tuesday night show.
"Of course the Russian effort affected the outcome. Surprising even themselves, they swung the election to a Trump win. To conclude otherwise stretches logic, common sense, and credulity to the breaking point," Maddow read from Clapper's book.
"Less than 80,000 votes in three key states swung the election," the excerpt continues. "I have no doubt that more votes than that were influenced by this massive effort by the Russians."
Clapper's book was released on Tuesday. Clapper said he didn't plan on writing a book but changed his mind because of Trump's presidency.
His book details the time leading up to and following the 2016 election, with a focus on Russia's election interference.
The intelligence community concluded shortly after the 2016 presidential election that Russian-liked groups attempted to sway the presidential election in favor of Trump. Intelligence officials did not come to a conclusion, however, as to whether or not Russian meddling efforts were successful.