Overnight Defense: Senate bucks Trump with Yemen war vote, resolution calling crown prince 'responsible' for Khashoggi killing | House briefing on Saudi Arabia fails to move needle | Inhofe casts doubt on Space Force

Happy Thursday and welcome to Overnight Defense. I'm Rebecca Kheel, and here's your nightly guide to the latest developments at the Pentagon, on Capitol Hill and beyond.

THE TOPLINE: In a historic vote, the Senate approved Thursday a resolution to end U.S. support for the Saudi-led war in Yemen.

The vote is mostly symbolic since the House effectively blocked similar action for the rest of the year and the White House threatened to veto the resolution it did make it President TrumpDonald John TrumpTrump rails against impeachment in speech to Texas farmers Trump administration planning to crack down on 'birth tourism': report George Conway on Trump adding Dershowitz, Starr to legal team: 'Hard to see how either could help' MORE’s deal.

But the vote still deals a significant blow to Trump amid heightened tensions over the death of U.S.-based Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi.

Senators voted 56-41 on the resolution, which would require the president to withdraw any troops in or “affecting” Yemen within 30 days unless they are fighting al Qaeda.

All 49 Democrats supported the resolution and were joined by seven Republicans: resolution co-sponsor Sen. Mike LeeMichael (Mike) Shumway LeeSenators are politicians, not jurors — they should act like it Sens. Kaine, Lee: 'We should not be at war with Iran unless Congress authorizes it' Overnight Defense: War powers fight runs into impeachment | Kaine has 51 votes for Iran resolution | Trump plans to divert .2B from Pentagon to border wall MORE (Utah) and Sens. Susan CollinsSusan Margaret CollinsMitch McConnell may win the impeachment and lose the Senate Murkowski wants senators to 'really hear the case' before deciding on impeachment witnesses Republicans will pay on Election Day for politicizing Trump's impeachment MORE (Maine), Steve DainesSteven (Steve) David DainesKoch network could target almost 200 races in 2020, official says GOP senators introduce resolution to change rules, dismiss impeachment without articles Congress to clash over Trump's war powers MORE (Mont.), Jeff FlakeJeffrey (Jeff) Lane FlakeGOP senator calls CNN reporter a 'liberal hack' when asked about Parnas materials The 5 most vulnerable senators in 2020 Poll: Democrat Mark Kelly leads incumbent McSally in Arizona Senate race MORE (Ariz.), Jerry Morean (Kansas), Rand PaulRandal (Rand) Howard PaulMitch McConnell may win the impeachment and lose the Senate GOP threatens to weaponize impeachment witnesses amid standoff Paul predicts no Republicans will vote to convict Trump MORE (Ky.) and Todd YoungTodd Christopher YoungIran resolution supporters fear impeachment will put it on back burner Senate GOP's campaign arm hauls in million in 2019 Sens. Kaine, Lee: 'We should not be at war with Iran unless Congress authorizes it' MORE (Ind.).

Why it’s historic: The resolution was brought to the floor using the War Powers Act, which was passed in 1973 as Congress worked to reassert its authority over the decision to go to war amid Vietnam.

But in all those years since, the War Powers Act was never successfully invoked.

Thursday’s vote changed that.

MBS ‘responsible’: Shortly after the Yemen vote wrapped up, the Senate also easily approved a resolution naming Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman as "responsible" for Khashoggi's slaying.

The measure, which was introduced earlier Thursday, passed the Senate by voice vote. It will now go to the House.

The resolution, spearheaded by outgoing Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Bob CorkerRobert (Bob) Phillips CorkerRNC says ex-Trump ambassador nominee's efforts 'to link future contributions to an official action' were 'inappropriate' Lindsey Graham basks in the impeachment spotlight The Hill's 12:30 Report — Presented by Nareit — White House cheers Republicans for storming impeachment hearing MORE (R-Tenn.), is nonbinding, but it puts the Senate on the record about the crown prince amid growing frustration on Capitol Hill over the U.S.-Saudi relationship.

"Unanimously, the United States Senate has said that Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman is responsible for the murder of Jamal Khashoggi. That is a strong statement. I think it speaks to the values that we hold dear. ... I'm glad the Senate is speaking with once voice unanimously toward this end," Corker said shortly after the vote.

In the House: The House does not appear headed toward action any time soon even after a briefing by Defense Secretary James MattisJames Norman MattisLawmakers push back at Pentagon's possible Africa drawdown Overnight Defense: Book says Trump called military leaders 'dopes and babies' | House reinvites Pompeo for Iran hearing | Dems urge Esper to reject border wall funding request Trump called top military brass 'a bunch of dopes and babies' in 2017: book MORE and Secretary of State Mike PompeoMichael (Mike) Richard PompeoCountries reach agreement in Berlin on Libya cease-fire push, arms embargo Trump Jr.: If 'weaker' Republicans only call for certain witnesses, 'they don't deserve to be in office' House Democrats may call new impeachment witnesses if Senate doesn't MORE -- the same briefing that infuriated senators into action.

House leadership from both parties emerged Thursday from the briefing without committing to take legislative action.

House Majority Whip Steve ScaliseStephen (Steve) Joseph ScaliseTrump welcomes LSU to the White House: 'Go Tigers' Republicans criticize Pelosi for gifting pens used to sign impeachment articles The Hill's Morning Report - Impeachment trial a week away; debate night MORE (R-La.) cited an “ongoing investigation” into Khashoggi’s death when asked whether leadership would support a resolution condemning Saudi Arabia for the killing.

Asked about moving something this year on the Yemeni civil war, where the United States supports a Saudi-led military coalition, he said the briefing “maybe addresses some of the questions” that were driving lawmaker concern about the war.

Meanwhile, House Minority Leader Nancy PelosiNancy PelosiDemocrats worry a speedy impeachment trial will shut out public Schiff huddles in Capitol with impeachment managers Media's selective outrage exposed in McSally-Raju kerfuffle MORE (D-Calif.), who is expected to be Speaker in the next Congress, noted there was enough bipartisan support to act on Yemen this year, but added “we’ll see how events proceed” when asked whether she will bring it up for a vote next year.

Pelosi did say she’d support sanctions against Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, but said the investigation into Khashoggi’s death needs to conclude first.

“Our decisions are evidenced based,” she said.

Pay up: Meanwhile, the Pentagon is now seeking reimbursement for $331 million from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates it never collected for the years of refueling their aircraft in the Yemen war.

Earlier, the Pentagon told Senate Armed Services Committee ranking member Sen. Jack ReedJohn (Jack) Francis ReedOvernight Defense: Book says Trump called military leaders 'dopes and babies' | House reinvites Pompeo for Iran hearing | Dems urge Esper to reject border wall funding request Senate Dems urge Esper to oppose shifting Pentagon money to border wall Sanders defends vote against USMCA: 'Not a single damn mention' of climate change MORE (D-R.I.) that it didn’t collect the money from the Saudis and Emiratis because of “errors in accounting.”

On Thursday, Reed said in a statement the Pentagon has now told him it will recoup the money.

“This is good news for U.S. taxpayers and underscores the need for strong oversight of the Department of Defense,” Reed said in a statement. “While the accounting error is being corrected, the larger issue remains that the Trump administration and international community must capitalize on the progress that has been made during the Yemen peace talks in Sweden.”

About Sweden: Speaking of the peace talks, there appeared to be a breakthrough Thursday.

The warring parties have agreed to a ceasefire in the port city of Hodeidah, the United Nations announced Thursday, prompting cautious optimism about progress in ending the long-running war.

U.N. Secretary-General António Guterres said in Sweden that Saudi-backed Yemeni fighters and the Iranian-backed Houthi rebels had agreed to the ceasefire in the city and around the port, which serves as a gateway for 70 percent of humanitarian aid entering the country.

"The UN will play a leading role in the port," Guterres said. "This will facilitate the humanitarian access and the flow of goods to the civilian population. It will improve the living conditions for millions of Yemenis."

TROUBLE FOR SPACE FORCE: Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman Jim InhofeJames (Jim) Mountain InhofeLawmakers push back at Pentagon's possible Africa drawdown Senators take oath for impeachment trial Trump, Democrats set for brawl on Iran war powers MORE (R-Okla.) is unconvinced that President Trump's proposed Space Force is necessary, leaving it out of his top priorities for next year's defense policy bill.

With Inhofe’s soon-to-be House counterpart opposed to the idea for a new military branch, the senator’s wavering spells trouble for a plan Trump wants done by 2020.

Inhofe, a staunch Trump supporter, has been briefing reporters one-on-one on his priorities for his committee next year, laying out them in bullet points in a two-page document. Space Force is not mentioned in the document.

In a recent interview with The Hill, Inhofe said he didn’t include one of Trump’s top priorities in his list because he still thinks Space Force is unnecessary until the Pentagon proves otherwise.

“It wasn’t on my list because I don’t think we need it,” he said Wednesday morning. “I have time and time again, ever since this subject came up, I’ve said there are two things you have to answer. One is, is it going to do a better job than we’re doing today? And then two, it’s going to cost more — how much more money is it going to cost?”

Still, Inhofe did not rule out the possibility that the Space Force could be in next year's National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) if he gets the answers he’s looking for.

“Until I hear those questions, I will be opposing it, but that doesn’t mean it’s not going to happen,” he said.

Common ground: Inhofe also said space is an area where he might be able to find agreement with Rep. Adam SmithDavid (Adam) Adam SmithLawmakers push back at Pentagon's possible Africa drawdown Overnight Defense: Foreign policy takes center stage at Democratic debate | House delivers impeachment articles to Senate | Dems vow to force new vote on Trump's border wall House Armed Services chairman exploring options to stop Trump from taking .2B in DOD funds for wall MORE (D-Wash.), who is poised be House Armed Services Committee chairman come January.

“We’re two different backgrounds,” Inhofe said of him and Smith. “I think this is a good example of something that we agree on, for different reasons.”

Inhofe, who warns Russia and China is jumping ahead of the U.S. military in certain areas, said he is unconvinced space is one of those areas.

Smith, meanwhile, thinks the military can do better in space, but does not believe Space Force is the answer.

In a recent breakfast with reporters, Smith reaffirmed his opposition, saying “creating a whole new bureaucracy” is not the solution to the problem.

“It costs more money than it nets,” Smith told the Defense Writers Group. “So we will have a conversation within our committee about the best way to place a greater emphasis on space. I think there is bipartisan concern about creating a separate branch of the military for space.”

COMMITTEE SHUFFLE: Senate Minority Leader Charles SchumerCharles (Chuck) Ellis SchumerTrump administration installs plaque marking finish of 100 miles of border wall Sanders defends vote against USMCA: 'Not a single damn mention' of climate change Schumer votes against USMCA, citing climate implications MORE (D-N.Y.) announced next year’s committee assignments Thursday, including the three senators who will fill the holes left the three Senate Armed Services Committee Democrats who lost their re-election bids in the midterms.

The new Democrats on the committee next year will be Sens. Joe ManchinJoseph (Joe) ManchinTrump's trial a major test for McConnell, Schumer Poll: West Virginia voters would view Manchin negatively if he votes to convict Trump Pelosi set to send impeachment articles to the Senate next week MORE (W.Va.), Tammy DuckworthLadda (Tammy) Tammy Duckworth Democratic senator asks for meeting with Amtrak head over alleged disability discrimination Democrats request briefing on intel behind Trump's embassy threat claim Duckworth slams Collins's comments: 'I left parts of my body in Iraq fighting terrorists' MORE (Ill.) and Doug Jones (Ala.).

Manchin is actually returning to the committee after leaving it two years ago to take a slot on the Appropriations Committee. For the next Congress, he is giving up his spot on the Intelligence Committee to come back to Armed Services.

Duckworth, who lost both her legs serving in Iraq, brings her combat experience to the panel.

“My buddies in Iraq refused to leave me behind, and I want to make sure that they don’t ever regret those sacrifices that gave me a second chance at life,” she said in a statement Thursday. “That’s why ever since I woke up at Walter Reed, I’ve made serving our nation’s service members and veterans my life’s mission. I’m proud to be able to continue that mission as a member of the Armed Services committee.”

Jones fills the Alabama-shaped hole the committee has had since former Sen. Luther StrangeLuther Johnson StrangeThe biggest political upsets of the decade State 'certificate of need' laws need to go GOP frets over nightmare scenario for Senate primaries MORE (R-Ala.) left. Prior to this year, the committee had not been without an Alabama senator for 20 years.

“Alabama and its citizens have long played a significant role in our national defense, from building or maintaining ships and other vehicles to leading cutting-edge research and development to volunteering to serve in our armed forces,” Jones said in a statement Thursday. “It is vital that we have a voice on the Senate Armed Services Committee, a role that I am honored to be able to fill in the next Congress. I am committed to serving as Alabama’s advocate for a strong national defense, which also means a strong and prosperous economy in our state.”

ICYMI

-- The Hill: Senate Dems urge Trump to continue nuclear arms control negotiations after treaty suspension

-- The Hill: House funding bill scraps Arctic icebreaker program

-- The Hill: Trump administration asks Supreme Court to temporarily allow transgender military ban

-- The Hill: Bolton warns Russia, China threaten US in Africa