OAS Secretary General Luis Almagro, a fierce critic of Maduro, suspended Venezuela's expulsion from the body on Wednesday; Venezuela was thrown out last June after 19 member nations voted to censure Maduro's reelection.
But in a vote Thursday, only 16 members — including the United States — voted favorably on an appeal by Secretary of State Mike PompeoMike PompeoHaley has 'positive' meeting with Trump No time for the timid: The dual threats of progressives and Trump Psaki: Sexism contributes to some criticism of Harris MORE for an OAS resolution recognizing Guaidó.
Bolivia, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines as well as Suriname expressed their support for Maduro, The Associated Press reported.
Mexico and Uruguay renewed their appeals for a dialogue between the different factions. Both countries have refused to declare Maduro illegitimate.
Guaidó, 35, panned the idea, saying he wouldn't lend himself to "false dialogue."
But Maduro welcomed the Mexican-Uruguayan proposal.
"I am committed to national dialogue. Today, tomorrow and always I will be committed and ready to go where I need to go. I, personally, if I have to go meet personally with this boy, I will go," Maduro told reporters at the presidential palace, according to El Pais.
Guaidó needs to court the European Union and Mexico
Guaidó's claim could be bolstered by recognition from Mexico as well as the European Union, though the latter's member states have competing interests in Venezuela.
"The Europeans are going to be divided," said Michael McCarthy, an expert on Venezuela at American University.
Italy, France, Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands lead the EU's contact group with Venezuela, McCarthy noted, adding they "have a lot at stake with citizens in country."
Maduro, meanwhile, has full support from Russia, China, Turkey, Syria, Iran and North Korea, a group that Rep. Mario Díaz-Balart (R-Fla.) has called "Thugs R Us."
Russia is especially active in its support of the current president, as it has outstanding loans to Maduro's government, and taking an opposing side to U.S. interests fits within Russian President Vladimir Putin's broader geopolitical goals, according to Christopher Miller, a specialist on Russian foreign policy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
"[Putin is] not looking for that much in a tangible sense," said Miller. "His broadest geopolitical goal is to pursue conflict with the West everywhere."
France, Germany and Spain have given Maduro until Feb. 3 to hold new elections, saying if elections are not held they will recognize Guaidó as the country's interim president.
US still has tools to deploy against Maduro
The Trump administration has stopped short of imposing a full oil embargo on Venezuela, instead opting for specific sanctions on individuals and entities tied to the Maduro government, and a broader ban on trade in gold.
But revenue for Venezuela's state-owned oil and natural gas company PDVSA has been hard hit by mismanagement, somewhat diminishing its significance.
"We haven’t even scratched the surface, per se," a senior administration official told reporters on a call this week.
"A whole bunch of new dynamics that come into play, including the fact that now the legitimate decision-makers in regards to economic transactions between Venezuela and the United States is the government of Interim President Juan Guaidó and the National Assembly," added the official.
Transferring control of Venezuelan assets abroad, namely in the United States, could bolster Guaidó's claims, but McCarthy warned any hasty moves could get mired in the courts.
"They've been preparing this dual sovereignty situation — recognizing a government in exile — for a while, so hopefully they have a decent plan ready to go," McCarthy said.
And legislation is moving in Congress to increase humanitarian aid to Venezuela, provide Venezuelans in the United States with immigration protections under the Temporary Protected Status program, and place further restrictions on the sale of police equipment to Maduro's government.
Rep. Donna ShalalaDonna Edna ShalalaDemocrats face bleak outlook in Florida 'Blue wave' Democrats eye comebacks after losing reelection Pelosi, Schumer must appoint new commissioners to the CARES Act oversight panel MORE (D-Fla.) didn't rule out the possibility of a military option, but said the United States should follow the lead of the OAS.
"Let's lock arms with Latin America number one, and number two, let's use diplomacy," she said. "I hope we're just very careful."