These people have been subpoenaed by the Jan. 6 panel
The House select committee’s investigation into the Jan. 6, 2021, attack on the Capitol is ramping up roughly seven months after the panel was formed.
The committee, which is composed of seven Democrats and two Republicans, has subpoenaed at least 89 people and organizations thus far as part of its probe into the facts, circumstances and causes connected to the Jan. 6 riot.
In addition to those who have been subpoenaed, the committee has requested voluntary interviews from House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R-Calif.), Reps. Scott Perry (R-Pa.) and Jim Jordan (R-Ohio), Fox News Host Sean Hannity and Ivanka Trump.
The subpoena list is vast, with recipients ranging from top White House officials and close allies of former President Trump to social media platforms and rally organizers.
Here is a list of all the people and organizations that have received a subpoena from the committee thus far.
Sept. 23, 2021
Meadows served as Trump’s chief of staff for roughly 10 months, a tenure that included Election Day and Jan. 6. The committee said it has credible evidence that suggests Meadows was “with or in the vicinity” of Trump on Jan. 6, and communicated with the president and others about events that took place at the Capitol that day. The outreach to Meadows and other subsequent subpoenas indicate an interest in his conversations with those that organized the rally preceding the attack on the Capitol, as well as conversations with Justice Department and state-level officials in order to challenge the results of the presidential election and delay the counting of Electoral College votes.
Scavino served as White House deputy chief of staff for communications for Trump from April 2020 through the end of his presidency. The committee referenced reports that said Scavino was with Trump on Jan. 5, when he and others were discussing how to convince congressional lawmakers to object to certifying the results of the 2020 presidential election. Additionally, the panel said Scavino was publishing tweets from the White House on Jan. 6.
Patel was chief of staff to acting Defense Secretary Christopher Miller at the time of the Jan. 6 riot. The committee said it has reason to believe, based on documents and published reporting, that Patel is privy to information regarding the Pentagon and White House’s role in preparing for and responding to the Capitol riot, in addition to his personal involvement in helping to organize events on Jan. 6. The panel also pointed to documents and published accounts that say Patel was involved with discussions between top Pentagon officials before and on Jan. 6 that focused on security at the Capitol for Jan. 6. Additionally, the panel noted Patel’s previous comments in which he said he was talking with Meadows “nonstop” on Jan. 6.
Bannon served as White House chief strategist and senior counselor to the president for the first seven months of Trump’s presidency. He was not serving in an official post connected to the White House at the time of the Jan. 6 attack, but the committee said he reportedly communicated with Trump on Dec. 20, 2020, and encouraged the president to make Jan. 6 the focal point of his efforts. Bannon also reportedly attended a meeting at the Willard Hotel in Washington, D.C., on Jan. 5, where Trump allies gathered to discuss plans to encourage congressional lawmakers to block the certification of the Electoral College vote. Additionally, the panel noted that Bannon on Jan. 5 said “all hell is going to break loose tomorrow.” Bannon is now being prosecuted by the Justice Department after he failed to provide documents or testimony to the committee.
Sept. 29, 2021
Kremer is the founder and chair of Women for America First, a group that organized the Jan. 6 rally on the Ellipse where Trump spoke right before his supporters descended on the Capitol. Kremer was reportedly one of several designated points of contact listed for the event. The committee cited news reports that said Kremer and others working with Women for America First on the rally collectively communicated with Trump, Meadows and others regarding the demonstration and various events connected to the Electoral College certification.
Kremer is the founder and executive director of Women for America First. She was also listed as one of a number of designated points of contact for the Jan. 6 rally on the Ellipse, where Trump spoke before the riot began at the Capitol building. The committee said Kremer and other individuals associated with Women for America First and the Jan. 6 rally collectively communicated with Trump, Meadows and others about the event and other demonstrations linked to the Electoral College certification.
Chafian is the founder of the Eighty Percent Coalition, the group that reportedly organized the rally in Freedom Plaza on Jan. 5. She also reportedly helped organize and submitted the original permit application on behalf of Women for America First for the rally that took place at the Ellipse on Jan. 6. Additionally, the committee said Chafian was one of the Women for America First members who collectively communicated with Trump, Meadows and others about the rally at the Ellipse and other events.
Wren reportedly helped organize the Jan. 6 rally at the Ellipse and was listed as a “VIP Advisor” on permit paperwork submitted by Women for America First for the demonstration. The committee said Women for America First members working with her on the rallies collectively communicated with Trump, Meadows and others about the event and other happenings connected to the election certification.
Mulvaney reportedly helped organize the Jan. 6 rally at the Ellipse and was listed as a “VIP Lead” on permit paperwork submitted by Women for America First for the demonstration. The committee said individuals connected to Women for America First who had been working with her collectively communicated with Trump, Meadows and others about the Jan. 6 rally and other events linking to the election certification. Mulvaney is a niece of former acting White House chief of staff Mick Mulvaney.
Caporale, the director of operations and senior vice president at Event Strategies, Inc., reportedly helped organize the rally held on Jan. 6 on the Ellipse. The committee said he was listed as a designated point of contact and described as a “Project Manager” on permit paperwork submitted for the rally by Women for America First. Additionally, the panel said individuals working with him and Women for America First on the rally collectively communicated with Trump, Meadows and others about the event and various happenings related to the election certification.
Unes, the founder and president of Event Strategies, Inc., reportedly assisted in organizing the Jan. 6 rally that took place on the Ellipse. The committee said Unes was listed as the “Stage Manager” on permit paperwork submitted for the rally by Women for America First. Additionally, the panel wrote in its subpoena that individuals working with him and Women for America First on the rally collectively communicated with Trump, Meadows and others about the rally and other events planned in connection to the election certification.
Powers of MPowers Consulting LLC reportedly assisted in organizing the Jan. 6 rally that took place on the Ellipse. The investigative panel said Powers was described as the “Operations Manager for Scheduling and Guidance” on permit paperwork submitted for the rally by Women for America First. Additionally, the committee wrote in its subpoena that individuals working with Powers and Women for America First on the rally collectively communicated with Trump, Meadows and others regarding the demonstration and other events planned that were linked to the election certification.
Salem of Salem Strategies LLC reportedly assisted in organizing the Jan. 6 rally held on the Ellipse. The committee said Salem was listed as the “Operations Manager for Logistics and Communications” on the permit paperwork submitted for the rally by Women for America First. Additionally, the panel said individuals working with Salem and Women for America First on the rally collectively communicated with Trump, Meadows and others regarding the rally and other events planned in connection to the election certification.
Brentnall of RMS Protective Services reportedly assisted in organizing the Jan. 6 rally that was held on the Ellipse. The committee said Brentnall was listed as the “RMS On-Site Supervisor” in permit paperwork submitted for the rally by Women for America First. Additionally, the panel said individuals working with Brentnall and Women for America First on the rally collectively communicated with Trump, Meadows and others about the planned event and other happenings taking place in connection to the election certification.
Pierson, a spokesperson for Trump’s 2016 campaign, reportedly aided Women for America First with organizing the Jan. 6 rally that took place on the Ellipse. The committee cited reports that said Pierson took part in an Oval Office meeting with Trump on Jan. 4, 2021, when the president asked if an additional rally could be assembled “where people like [Ali] Alexander and Roger Stone could speak.” Pierson reportedly said that such a rally existed, referring to the demonstration planned for Jan. 5 in Freedom Plaza.
Oct. 7, 2021
Alexander, a right-wing provocateur and longtime Republican operative, is a “Stop the Steal” organizer who secured a permit for a rally on the Capitol grounds that preceded the riot at the Capitol. Alexander also said he was in touch with the White House and congressional lawmakers regarding the planned events coinciding with the Electoral College certification on Jan. 6. “We four schemed up of putting maximum pressure on Congress while they were voting,” he said of his conversations with Reps. Mo Brooks (R-Ala.), Andy Biggs (R-Ariz.), and Paul Gosar (R-Ariz.). Additionally, the committee said Alexander spoke at a rally in Washington, D.C., on Jan. 5 where he led the crowd in chanting “victory, or death.”
Martin was connected to the permit application for the “Stop the Steal” rally organized by Alexander, which was submitted by an organization purportedly dubbed “One Nation Under God.”
Stop the Steal, LLC
Stop the Steal, LLC is an organization with ties to the eponymous rally that took place on Capitol grounds before the riot began. The committee said the group seems to be the corporate entity associated with Alexander.
Oct. 13, 2021
Clark, the former acting civil division assistant attorney general under the Trump administration, reportedly floated the idea of the Justice Department sending a letter to legislators in Georgia and other states proposing that they push the date for certifying their election results and host a press conference to declare that the Justice Department was looking into claims of voter fraud. The committee also said Clark probed allegations of voter fraud in an unofficial capacity and violated the Justice Department’s regulations regarding contacts with the White House. The panel wrote in its subpoena that Clark’s actions “risked involving the Department of Justice in actions that lacked evidentiary foundation and threatened to subvert the rule of law.”
Nov. 8, 2021
Stepien was the manager of Trump’s 2020 reelection campaign. The committee said Stepien “supervised the conversion” of Trump’s presidential campaign to an effort fixed on “Stop the Steal” messaging and associated fundraising. Such messaging reportedly included false claims of election fraud involving voting machines.
Miller served as a senior adviser to Trump’s 2020 reelection campaign. The committee said Miller “regularly spread” the allegation that the 2020 race was marred with fraud, and “publicly claimed” before Election Day that Democrats would “steal” the election. The panel also said Miller was present at the Jan. 5 Willard Hotel meeting, where Trump allies reportedly huddled to discuss overturning the election results.
McCallum was the national executive assistant for Trump’s 2020 reelection campaign. The committee said public accounts disclosed evidence that McCallum knew about and took part in efforts to disseminate false information regarding claims of fraud in the 2020 presidential election. She was also reportedly aware of and involved with efforts to persuade state legislators to change the results of the election by selecting new electors to send different electoral votes to Congress in Washington.
Eastman is a conservative lawyer who was a key legal adviser to Trump, crafting two memos outlining a strategy to contest the election, including the strategy that Pence buck his ceremonial duty to certify the election results. The committee said Eastman reportedly took part in a briefing with almost 300 state legislators that focused on claims of election fraud, telling participants that it was “the duty of the legislatures to fix this, this egregious conduct, and make sure that we’re not putting in the White House some guy that didn’t get elected.” The panel said Eastman briefed Trump, Pence and others on his judgment of Pence’s power. Eastman was also said to have been present at the Jan. 5 meeting at the Willard Hotel with other Trump allies regarding overturning the election, and he spoke at the Jan. 6 rally at the Ellipse.
Flynn, who served a short stint as national security adviser in the Trump administration, was reportedly present at an Oval Office office meeting on Dec. 18, 2020, that included conversations regarding the seizure of voting machines by invoking national security emergency powers and continuing to bolster the claim that there was fraud in the 2020 presidential election.
Kerik, the former New York police commissioner and an associate of Rudy Giuliani, reportedly took part in meetings at the Willard Hotel with Trump allies that discussed overturning the election. Kerik paid for rooms and suites at hotels in Washington, D.C., that were used as “election-related command centers.” The Washington Post reported that the Trump campaign ultimately reimbursed Kerik for the hundreds of thousands of dollars he spent on the hotels. Kerik also reportedly assisted Giuliani in looking into claims of voter fraud, and advocated for various lawsuits and “Stop the Steal” efforts.
Nov. 9, 2021
Luna, who served as Trump’s personal assistant, was reportedly present in the Oval Office the morning of Jan. 6 when the president was talking to Pence on the phone and encouraging him not to certify the Electoral College vote for the 2020 election.
Michael served as special assistant to the president and Oval Office operations coordinator. The committee said Michael took part in disseminating information regarding claims of election fraud to various individuals on Trump’s instruction. Michael reportedly forwarded at least one email to the then-acting attorney general, acting deputy attorney general and solicitor general that related to Trump’s efforts to persuade the Justice Department to file a lawsuit with the Supreme Court that sought to overturn the results of the election.
Williamson served as deputy assistant to the president and senior adviser to Meadows. The committee said Williamson may be able to relay information regarding Meadows and his efforts to communicate with officials in Georgia and others about claims of fraud that state and federal courts had already rejected. The panel also said Williamson may be able to shed light on Meadows’ attempts to communicate with U.S. officials during the riot, and his efforts to contact top Justice Department personnel regarding investigations into claims of voter fraud, in addition to other issues the committee is probing.
Liddell, the former White House deputy chief of staff, was reportedly at the White House on Jan. 6 and witnessed “activities of that day.” The committee also said Liddell, like Williamson, could shed light on areas of interest regarding Meadows.
McEntee served as White House personnel director under the Trump administration. The committee said McEntee was reportedly in attendance at an Oval Office meeting where Trump, Pence, Giuliani and Justin Clark conversed about the audit operation in Georgia. Giuliani at that meeting also reportedly floated the idea of taking possession of Dominion voting machines because of claims of fraud. Additionally, McEntee reportedly engaged in conversations with federal agency personnel regarding their loyalties to Trump, and dissuaded them from seeking future job opportunities after the 2020 presidential election because it would create the appearance of conceding from the race. The committee also said McEntee traveled with Trump to the Ellipse for the “Stop the Steal” rally on Jan. 6, and is “a witness to the events of that day.”
Kellogg was serving as Pence’s national security adviser on Jan. 6. The committee said Kellogg took part in at least one meeting in January 2021 with Trump and then-White House counsel Pat Cipollone where the president said Pence “need[ed] to send the votes back” and not certify the vote. Kellogg was also reportedly at the White House as the riot was taking place at the Capitol, and has direct information regarding Trump’s comments about and reactions to the events unfolding. The then-national security adviser also reportedly met with Trump and others on Jan. 6 and encouraged the president to tweet a message to his supporters at the Capitol to help control the situation.
McEnany served as White House press secretary from April 2020 through the end of the Trump administration. The committee said McEnany made several public statements from the White House and other locations regarding allegations of election fraud. The panel also noted that McEnany was with Trump when he proceeded to the Ellipse for the Jan. 6 rally, and periodically watched the Capitol riot unfold alongside the president.
Miller served as senior adviser to Trump during his time in office. The committee said Miller, based on his own public statements, took part in efforts to amplify claims of voter fraud associated with the 2020 presidential election, and efforts to urge state legislatures to change the results of the race. Additionally, Miller and his team reportedly helped Trump prepare for his speech on Jan. 6 at the Ellipse, and Miller accompanied him at the event. He also spent time at the White House the day of the riot.
Hutchinson, who served as special assistant to the president for legislative affairs, was reportedly at the White House on Jan. 6 and accompanied Trump to the rally at the Ellipse. Additionally, the committee said that on Dec. 30, 2020, Hutchinson contacted the Georgia deputy secretary of state asking to talk — a request that came after Meadows had traveled to the Peach State for an election audit. The panel also said Hutchinson may be in a position to reveal information regarding Meadows that is relevant to the committee’s investigation.
Klukowski, who served as senior counsel in the division led by Trump DOJ official Jeffrey Clark, may have tried to involve the Justice Department in efforts to urge states to send alternate electors to Washington, D.C., according to the committee. Klukowski was reportedly in touch with Clark about his proposed letter to Georgia state legislators and other local officials that floated the idea of pushing back the certification of the election results because of fraud allegations, among other recommendations. The committee also said Clark reached out to Klukowski before a meeting at the White House in which Trump mulled firing the acting attorney general and installing Clark in the post.
Nov. 22, 2021
Stockton, along with his fiancée Jennifer Lawrence, reportedly aided Women for America First in putting together a number of rallies to occur after the 2020 presidential election in support of Trump and his claims of election fraud — including the Jan. 6 demonstration on the Ellipse that preceded the riot at the Capitol. Stockton and others working with Women for America First on the Jan. 6 rally collectively communicated with Trump, Meadows and other officials about the events that were scheduled around the certification of the Electoral College vote, according to the panel. The committee, however, said Stockton and Amy Kremer had concerns that demonstrations could stretch to the steps of the Capitol, and they brought the qualms to Pierson, who served as the intermediary between the Women for America First and Trump and the White House. Pierson reportedly said she would relay the concerns to Meadows.
Lawrence, along with her fiancé, Stockton, reportedly helped Women for America first in arranging rallies in support of Trump and claims of voter fraud that took place after the 2020 presidential election, including the Jan. 6 rally at the Ellipse.
Budowich, who currently serves as director of communications for Trump and his Save America PAC, reportedly sought out a 501(c)(4) organization for a social media and radio advertising campaign that would urge individuals to attend the Jan. 6 rally on the Ellipse. The committee said it has reason to believe that Budowich directed an undisclosed contribution of roughly $200,000 to the organization, which was used to pay for the advertising effort. The panel cited press reports that say Wren — who is connected to permit paperwork for the rally — may have played a role in moving some or all of the money into the 501(c)(4) organization.
Stone, a staunch Trump ally, spoke at a rally on Jan. 5 in Washington, D.C., and was reportedly slated to speak at the Jan. 6 rally at the Ellipse. He had promoted his scheduled appearances and asked supporters to contribute money to his security. Once he arrived in Washington, Stone reportedly had members of the right-wing Oath Keepers work as his personal security guards — some of whom were said to have been involved with the riot. At least one of those security guards has been indicted, according to the committee. The panel also noted that Stone previously said he was invited “to lead a march to the Capitol” from the Ellipse rally on Jan. 6, but ultimately did not visit either location that day.
Jones, a far-right radio host on Infowars, reportedly assisted in organizing the Jan. 6 rally that took place on the Ellipse. The committee said Jones helped facilitate a donation from Julie Fancelli who, according to the radio host, donated “80 percent” of the funding. Jones, however, did not speak at that event, but he was present at the Ellipse and then marched from there to the Capitol once the event ended. Video footage of Jones at the Capitol captured him telling individuals not to engage in violence, instead urging them to congregate for Trump’s remarks, which the president never delivered — he did not travel to the Capitol from the White House. The committee also noted that Jones delivered remarks at the Jan. 5 rally on Freedom Plaza, and in the lead up to the Capitol riot made comments amplifying claims of election fraud and suggesting that he had information regarding Trump’s Jan. 6 rally.
Nov. 23, 2021
Proud Boys International, LLC
The Proud Boys is a far-right group accused of calling for violence ahead of the attack on the Capitol. At least 34 people affiliated with the group have been indicted by the Department of Justice in connection with the storming of the Capitol. The group’s members are accused of spreading unsupported claims that the 2020 election was stolen and of suggesting use of force against police officers and government officials.
Henry “Enrique” Tarrio
Tarrio served as chairman of the Proud Boys at the time of the attack on the Capitol. He was “prevented from entering Washington, D.C.,” on the day of the riots but is accused of helping the group prepare in advance for the events that unfolded at the Capitol. The subpoena also cited an incident on Dec. 12, 2020, when Tarrio burned a “Black Lives Matter” banner that had been stolen from a church. On Jan. 4, 2021, Tarrio was arrested for burning the banner, which is why he was not permitted to enter the capital.
The Oath Keepers are another far-right group accused of helping plan and participate in the attack on the U.S. Capitol. Eighteen members from the group have been indicted by a federal grand jury in connection with their part in the attack thus far.
Elmer Stewart Rhodes
Rhodes is the president of the Oath Keepers and is accused of being in contact before, during and after the attack with several group members who have since been indicted. Ahead of Jan. 6, he repeatedly suggested that his group should participate in violence to achieve their desired outcome in the 2020 election. Specifically, the subpoena says Rhodes suggested on Election Day that his group members serve as “poll watchers” and “stock up on ammo” in preparation for a “full-on war in the streets.” Rhodes has since been indicted by the Justice Department and charged with seditious conspiracy.
Robert Patrick Lewis/1st Amendment Praetorian
Lewis serves as the chairman of 1st Amendment Praetorian, a group that provided security for various rallies ahead of Jan. 6 that supported the false claim that the election was stolen from Trump. “Today is the day that true battles begin,” Lewis tweeted on Jan. 6. The next day, he asserted that he was part of “war-gaming” to continue efforts to overturn the election.
Dec. 10, 2021
Robert “Bobby” Peede, Jr.
Peede met with Trump in his private dining room off the Oval Office on Jan. 4, days ahead of the attack. The meeting was to discuss plans for the Jan. 6 Ellipse rally and its speakers.
Miller was also part of the Jan. 4 meeting with Peede and Trump regarding the Ellipse rally.
Jack served as Trump’s director of political affairs at the time of the Jan. 6 attack. He reached out to various members of Congress on Trump’s behalf requesting that they speak at the Ellipse rally.
Lewis had a permit for a rally outside of the Capitol on Jan. 6. That rally was intended to “urge congress to nullify electoral votes from states that made illegal changes to voting rules during their elections.”
Martin, a Stop the Steal organizer, was involved in planning and financing the Stop the Steal protest, which took place on Jan. 6 just before rioters stormed the Capitol.
Fletcher helped organize the Jan. 5 rally at Freedom Plaza and the Ellipse rally on Jan. 6, which supported Trump’s unsupported claims of election fraud. Fletcher is the president and founder of Moms for America.
Dec. 15, 2021
Gorka, a conservative pundit and onetime White House adviser to Trump, sued the select committee in January, revealing that Verizon had received a subpoena from the panel for his phone records from Nov. 1, 2020 through Jan. 31, 2021. Gorka said he was at the Ellipse on Jan. 6 and listened to Trump’s speech “as one spectator among many,” before leaving. He also said he was scheduled to speak at an event at the Supreme Court that day, but his appearance was ultimately canceled.
Dec. 16, 2021
James P. “Phil” Waldron
Waldron, a retired Army colonel, was subpoenaed in connection to promoting claims about fraud in the 2020 election. He is also accused of “discussing his theories in the weeks leading up to the January 6th attack” with officials in Trump’s White House. After the election, Waldron claimed to have visited the White House and said he spoke to Meadows “maybe eight to 10 times” in addition to briefing several members of Congress on election fraud theories. Waldron also circulated a 38-page PowerPoint titled “Election Fraud, Foreign Interference & Options for 6 JAN,” a presentation included in emails to Meadows. He has since been accused of being involved in efforts to push the government to seize voting machines.
Jan. 5, 2022
Lindell, the CEO of MyPillow, filed a lawsuit against the select committee on Jan. 5, which revealed that the panel issued a subpoena to Verizon for his cellphone records between Nov. 1, 2020 and Jan. 31, 2021. (It’s not clear when exactly the subpoena was issued.) Lindell was an active Trump supporter after the 2020 presidential election, contending that the vote was rigged in favor of Biden. He has also been a central driver behind the claims that manipulated voting machines contributed to the fraudulent election outcome. Lindell was photographed at the White House after meeting with Trump on Jan. 15, 2021, and zoomed-in images taken by Washington Post photographer Jabin Botsford showed that the CEO’s notes read “martial law if necessary” and the “Insurrection Act,” an 1806 law that allows the president to send troops to suppress civil order or actions of insurrection.
Jan. 11, 2022
Surabian, along with Arthur Schwartz, served as a strategist and adviser to Donald Trump Jr. Both Surabian and Schwartz were in touch with Trump Jr. and Kimberly Guilfoyle about the Jan. 6 Ellipse rally. Surabian also briefly served in the White House as Bannon’s deputy.
Schwartz joined Surabian in advising Trump Jr. and was in touch with the former president’s son as well as Guilfoyle about plans for the Ellipse rally on Jan. 6.
Worthington, a former White House official, helped write Trump’s speech for the Jan. 6 Ellipse rally. The speech was “in support of his allegations of election fraud” and encouraged the crowd to “‘fight much harder’ and ‘stop the steal,’ ” a letter from the committee to Worthington said. In that speech, Trump said “I’ll be there with you” as he encouraged supporters to march to the Capitol.
Jan. 13, 2022
Alphabet, the parent company of YouTube, was subpoenaed after the video-sharing giant was used to livestream the events of Jan. 6 by users relevant to planning and carrying out the attack on the Capitol. In its letter to Sundar Pichai, who serves as Alphabet’s CEO, the committee cited Bannon streaming his podcast on YouTube as well as a video that Trump posted during the attack that was later taken down before his account was suspended in its entirety.
Meta, the parent company of Facebook, was used “to share messages of hate, violence, and incitement, to spread misinformation, disinformation, and conspiracy theories,” the committee’s letter to Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s founder, said. The social media platform was also used to help plan and coordinate the Stop the Steal movement. The subpoena comes after the committee requested information from the company but said “Meta has declined to commit to a deadline for producing or even identifying these materials.” Frances Haugen, a whistleblower who leaked internal company research, previously told a Senate panel that the company dissolved its civic integrity team following the 2020 election but before the Jan. 6 attack. Facebook, however, has said that it “did not disband Civic Integrity,” but rather “integrated it into a larger Central Integrity Team.”
Reddit was home to the r/The_Donald subreddit which was later moved to a website known as TheDonald.win in mid-2020. That site housed conversations about plans for the Jan. 6 attack after Reddit “restricted the ‘r/The_Donald’ community in 2019 and early 2020, and — ultimately — shut down the subreddit on June 29, 2020,” the committee’s letter said.
Twitter users are also accused of using the platform to plan and execute the attack on the Capitol as well as to spread false claims of election fraud, assertions shared in tweets from Trump as well as other users. In its letter to Parag Agrawal, Twitter’s current CEO, the committee highlighted the former president’s tweets saying it was “Statistically impossible to have lost the 2020 Election,” and encouraging his followers to take part in a “wild” protest in Washington on Jan. 6. The committee also said the social media site was warned about the possibility of violence being planned on the site ahead of Jan. 6. The committee’s letter cited comments from former Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey acknowledging that the site had some responsibility for the violence that took place on Jan. 6.
Jan. 18, 2022
Giuliani, who served as Trump’s personal lawyer, was subpoenaed for promoting claims of election fraud on Trump’s behalf. The committee said that Giuilani not only attempted to get state legislators to move toward overturning the 2020 election results but he was also in touch with Trump and members of Congress about possible ways to delay or change the election’s results. The subpoena also says Giuliani, whose law license was temporarily suspended in New York in June, “urged President Trump to direct the seizure of voting machines around the country after being told that the Department of Homeland Security had no lawful authority to do so.” Reporting by The New York Times has since indicated Giuliani rejected other aspects of the plan, including using the military to seize the equipment.
Ellis, a campaign attorney, was subpoenaed after she publicly promoted assertions that the 2020 election was stolen. She also reportedly “prepared and circulated two memos purporting to analyze the constitutional authority for the Vice President to reject or delay counting electoral votes from states that had submitted alternate slates of electors,” the committee said. Ellis, along with fellow campaign attorney Sidney Powell, were also members of what Ellis referred to as an “elite strike force team” created in November 2020 to combat Biden’s electoral victory.
The subpoena for Powell, who also represented former Trump national security adviser Michael Flynn, cited her effort to tell Trump to seize voting machines in pursuit of evidence that “foreign adversaries had hacked those machines and altered the results of the election.” Ultimately, the Trump campaign distanced itself from Powell, who independently filed election-related lawsuits and lost legal battles across four states. In Michigan, one judge dismissed her case as frivolous and ordered Powell to attend classes regarding the ethical and legal requirements for filing a lawsuit.
Epshteyn, a former Trump campaign adviser, attended meetings at the Willard Hotel, where the Trump team headquartered their post-election efforts, prior to Jan. 6 and spoke with Trump the morning of the attack about ways “to delay the certification of election results in light of Vice President Pence’s unwillingness to deny or delay certification.”
Jan. 19, 2022
Nicholas J. Fuentes
Fuentes is a leader for the the alt-right “America First” or “Groyper” movement. He, along with Patrick Casey, was subpoenaed for being at the Capitol on Jan. 6 and promoting false election claims at other rallies preceding the attack on the Capitol, during some of which they called for the destruction of the Republican Party for not overturning the election’s results. The day after the attack, Fuentes reportedly tweeted, “The Capitol Siege was f—ing awesome and I’m not going to pretend it wasn’t.” He has been labeled a white supremacist leader by the Anti-Defamation League.
Casey, another notable far-right leader of the America First movement, was also on Capitol grounds at the time of the attack and reportedly received roughly $25,000 worth of Bitcoin from a French computer programmer, the same donor who funneled roughly $250,000 worth of funds to Fuentes. The FBI has investigated if these funds had a connection to the Jan. 6 attack, and it has also referred to Casey as a white supremacist.
Kelli and Michael Ward (phone records)
Kelli Ward, the chair of the Arizona Republican Party, and her husband Michael Ward, sued the select committee in February, which revealed that the panel had issued a subpoena to T-Mobile for the couple’s phone records. The Wards were among the group of fake electors that had attempted to pass off their certifications as lawful Electoral College votes for Trump. Kelli Ward celebrated the effort in a video on YouTube.
Jan. 28, 2022
Cottle, the Arizona group’s chairperson, was subpoenaed after she as an alternate elector met with other electors “to cast votes for former President Trump and former Vice President Pence” despite the fact that her state had already voted for President Biden and Vice President Harris.
Loraine B. Pellegrino
Pellegrino, also from Arizona, was subpoenaed as an alternate elector. She has previously told The Arizona Republican that she did not like being called an alternate elector and was just “an elector for Trump.”
Shafer, who leads the Georgia Republican Party, reportedly acted as an alternate elector for Trump and Pence despite the fact that his state determined that Biden and Harris won the election. Shafer was also a plaintiff in a lawsuit from the former president attempting to overturn the election.
Still, a 2022 candidate for Georgia’s state Senate, led the state’s Republican Party as its finance chair. He also reportedly acted as an alternate elector in support of Trump and Pence despite the fact that his state voted for Biden and Harris in the election.
Berden, a Trump delegate during the 2016 Republican National Convention, was a national committeewoman of the Republican Party of Michigan. She was also reportedly an alternate elector in favor of Trump and Pence despite the fact that Biden and Harris won the election in her state.
Rodriguez was also subpoenaed as an Electoral College elector who met in December to vote for Trump and Pence after Michigan had already voted for Biden and Harris. In 2020, she lost in an election for a Michigan House seat.
Powdrell, a New Mexico elector who was subpoenaed after signing fake certificates, is a retired businessman and member of the United Black Conservatives of New Mexico. He reportedly acted as an alternate elector for Trump and Pence despite the fact that Biden and Harris won the election in the state.
Deborah W. Maestas
Maestas is the former chairwoman of the Republican Party of New Mexico and reportedly acted as an alternate elector for Trump and Pence despite the fact that her state voted for the Democratic ticket.
Michael J. McDonald
McDonald serves as Nevada’s Republican Party chair and reportedly served as an alternate elector for Trump and Pence despite the fact that his state supported Biden and Harris. He has previously told the Las Vegas Review-Journal that the Jan. 6 attack was prompted by “unforeseen circumstances.”
DeGraffenreid, another subpoenaed alternate elector, is a national committeeman for the Republican National Committee in Nevada.
Bachenberg is a retired data industry CEO and board member of the National Rifle Association. He reportedly acted as an alternate elector in support of Trump and Pence, despite the fact that Biden and Harris had won the race in Pennsylvania.
Patton is a former staffer of Trump’s 2020 campaign and was subpoenaed as an alternate elector from Pennsylvania.
Hitt, an alternate elector from Wisconsin and an attorney, was previously the chairman of the state’s Republican Party and a staffer in former Gov. Scott Walker’s (R) administration, where he served as assistant deputy secretary in the Department of Health and the Department of Administration. Hitt is now a partner at Michael Best Strategies LLC and previously told the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel that he “will cooperate with the committee’s request to provide information.”
Ruh is an alderperson in De Pere, Wis., and reportedly acted as an alternate elector in support of Trump and Pence, despite the fact that Biden and Harris won in her state.
Feb. 9, 2022
Navarro served as a White House trade adviser during Trump’s time in office. The select committee said Navarro worked with Steve Bannon and others in creating and executing a plan that sought to delay the congressional certification of the 2020 presidential election results and ultimately alter the outcome of the race. The subpoena references Navarro’s book, titled “In Trump Time: My Journal of America’s Plague Year,” which called the plan the “Green Bay Sweep” and said it was “the last best chance to snatch a stolen election from the Democrats’ jaw of deceit.” The panel also pointed to Navarro’s previous comments in which he said Trump was “on board with the strategy,” in addition to “more than 100” congressional lawmakers including Rep. Paul Gosar (R-Ariz.) and Sen. Ted Cruz (R-Texas).
Feb. 16, 2022
Michael A. Roman
Roman, who served as director of Election Day operations for Trump’s 2020 presidential campaign, reportedly encouraged state legislators to change the results of the November election by, among other strategies, nominating alternate electors to rival the electoral votes that were being sent to Congress. The panel said it has communications that show Roman’s involvement in an effort to contact GOP state lawmakers in states Trump lost and persuade them to “reclaim” their authority by dispatching alternate electors that would support Trump. He reportedly played a role in directing Trump campaign staffers to take part in the strategy.
Gary Michael Brown
Brown, who served as deputy director of Election Day operations for Trump’s 2020 presidential campaign, reportedly played a role in pressing state legislators to adjust the results of the November election by, among other approaches, selecting alternate electors that would challenge the electoral votes sent to Congress. The committee said it has communications involving him and other Trump campaign members that touched on a strategy to encourage legislators in states Trump lost to “reclaim” their power by nominating alternate electors that would back Trump. He reportedly helped manage Trump campaign staffers who took part in the plan.
Douglas V. Mastriano
Mastriano is a Pennsylvania state senator and Republican candidate for mayor of the commonwealth. The select committee said it believes Mastriano took part in an effort to arrange alternate electors that would ultimately be presented to the president of the Senate on Jan. 6, 2021. The panel also said Mastriano reportedly spoke with Trump about his “post-election activities,” and was present at the Capitol on the day of the attack. The subpoena cites a November 2020 tweet in which Mastriano said that under the U.S. Constitution “the state legislature has the sole authority to direct the manner of selecting delegates to the Electoral College.”
Cox, a former GOP state representative in Michigan, was reportedly a witness to Rudy Giuliani pressing state lawmakers to ignore election results in the Wolverine State. The committee also said she witnessed Giuliani claiming that certifying the election results would amount to a “criminal act.”
Mark W. Finchem
Finchem, a Republican member of the Arizona state House, reportedly helped organize a hearing at a hotel in Phoenix where members of Trump’s legal team and others discussed claims of election and voter fraud. The committee said that during a break from the meeting he said “Not only do we have ballots that are improper but we have an election system that’s been hacked.” The panel also said Finchem reportedly communicated with top figures from the Stop the Steal group about an event on Jan. 6 at the Capitol, which he was slated to speak at, and was at the Capitol the day of the riot. The subpoena also said Finchem, in the days following the Jan. 6 attack, claimed that he was in Washington, D.C. ““to deliver an evidence book and letter to Vice President Pence showing key evidence of fraud in the Arizona Presidential Election, and asking him to consider postponing the award of electors….”
Ward, the chair of the Arizona Republican Party, reportedly texted state election officials in the days after the race was called “[w]e need you to stop the counting,” and asked the individual to get in touch with an attorney representing the Trump campaign. She reportedly said “I know you don’t want to be remembered as the guy who led the charge to certify a fraudulent election.” The committee also said Ward reportedly spoke with Trump and his staffers about problems involving election certification in Arizona, and spread claims that the election was “stolen.” She also reportedly solicited donations for the Arizona GOP Party by posting a video that amplified theories of election interference involving Dominion Voting Systems. Additionally, the subpoena said Ward allegedly “acted as a purported Electoral College elector to meet and ultimately transmit to Congress a set of alternate Electoral College votes.” The committee issued a subpoena to T-Mobile in January to obtain the phone records of Ward and her husband, Michael. They then sued the committee in February.
March 1, 2022
Mitchell, a conservative lawyer and former Oklahoma state House representative, was on the phone call between Trump and Georgia Secretary of State Brad Raffensperger when the then-president asked the secretary of state to “find” enough votes to overturn his loss in the state. The committee also said Mitchell was in contact with Trump on Jan. 6 and in the days leading up to the riot. Additionally, Mitchell reportedly pushed claims of election fraud “on behalf of” Trump and worked to persuade officials on the state and federal levels to take action to overturn the results of the 2020 presidential election, according to the committee. She also reportedly informed Members of Congress of false claims of election fraud. The lawyer’s accusations of voter fraud were included in Meadows’ list of items he asked the Justice Department to investigate.
Cheseboro, an attorney for the campaign in Wisconsin, pushed legal theories within the Trump campaign that involved the use of alternate electors in states Trump lost, according to the committee. The advocacy reportedly occurred between November 2020 and Jan. 6, 2021, and thereafter. Cheseboro also reportedly told the Trump campaign that he was taking part in efforts that would “bolster” the case for postponing the electoral certification and lead the public to “believe[e] that the election in [Wisconsin] was likely rigged, and stolen by Biden and Harris, who were not legitimately elected.”
Bobb, a host at One America News Network, reportedly took part in efforts to write an executive order for Trump that would have instructed federal agencies to seize voting machines in a number of contested states, which was part of an effort to collect evidence bolstering claims of election fraud. The committee also said Bobb was at the Willard Hotel on Jan. 6 for the “war room” meeting with members of Giuliani’s legal team.
Friess, a lawyer and Washington lobbyist, was reportedly involved in efforts to draw up an executive order for Trump intended to direct “federal agencies to seize voting machines in numerous contested states in order to collect evidence of purported election fraud.” She also took part in attempts to subpoena voting machines from county election boards, and traveled to Michigan to obtain voting machine data from local officials, the select committee said.
Olsen, a pro-Trump lawyer, reportedly contacted various high-ranking officials within the Department of Justice, at the direction of Trump, in order “to discuss filing a last-minute challenge to the election based on a similar case that the Supreme Court had already rejected.” The contact reportedly occurred days before the Capitol attack. Olson, who had multiple phone calls with Trump on Jan. 6, also helped prepare an executive order that would have directed the Justice Department “to take voter action.”
Kline, a former Kansas attorney general, assembled a meeting between Trump and more than 300 state legislatures in an effort to distribute purported evidence of election fraud, and encourage the lawmakers to sign a letter calling on Pence to delay the certification of electoral votes at the Capitol on Jan. 6.
March 3, 2022
Guilfoyle, a Trump campaign aide and the fiancé of Donald Trump Jr., was reportedly in attendance at a meeting in the Oval Office with Trump, several members of their family and others on the morning of Jan. 6 — which is also the last time the president spoke to then-Vice President Pence by phone before the congressional certification of the election, according to the committee. The panel said Guilfoyle claims to have taken part in raising funds for the Jan. 6 rally on the Ellipse, including telling one rally organizer that she “raised so much money for this. Literally one of the donors Julia is at 3 million” — referring to Julie Fancelli, who funded the event. Additionally, the committee noted that Guilfoyle spoke at that rally and was filmed backstage telling individuals to “Have the courage to do the right thing. Fight!” She also “communicated with others about the decision by President Trump about who was and was not allowed to speak at the rally, including concerns raised about him sharing the stage with people like Ali Alexander, Alex Jones, and Roger Stone,” according to the panel’s letter to Guilfoyle.
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